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    16 August 2010 Volume 24 Issue 4
      
    Articles
    Expression and significance of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and p-glycoprotein in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma
    LI Da-wei, GAO Shang, CHEN Xin-wei, WANG Guo, DONG Pin
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2010, 24(4):  6-9. 
    Abstract ( 1142 )   PDF (806KB) ( 1076 )   Save
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    Objective     To investigate the expressions of HIF-1α (Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α) and P-gp (P-glycoprotein) in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma(LSCC)and normal laryngeal mucosa, and to analyze their relationship with clinicopathological features. Methods    The expression of HIF-1α and P-gp of 86 cases of LSCC and that of 42 cases of normal laryngeal mucosa were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results    The positive rates of HIF-1α and P-gp proteins were significantly higher in LSCC than those in normal tissues (P<0.05). The expression of HIF-1α protein was correlated with TNM stage and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05), but not histological differentiation and primary site(P>0.05). The level of P-gp expression was also associated with TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, histological differentiation of LSCC but not  primary site(P>0.05). There was a positive correlation between the expressions of HIF1α and P-gp proteins(r=0.442, P<0.01). Conclusion    High expressions of HIF-1α and P-gp proteins in LSCC may play important roles in the progression of the disease. HIF-1α and P-gp may be two potential biomarkers in the assessment of clinicopathological features of LSCC.

    Surgical treatment of thyroid cancer
    YI Hai-jin1, Zhang Bao-quan2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2010, 24(4):  10-12. 
    Abstract ( 1139 )   PDF (342KB) ( 1473 )   Save
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    Objective     To explore the relative problem of thyroid cancer on surgical treatment. Methods     28 patients were diagnosed both on intraoperation frozen section and postoperation paraffin section. Results    the  result of two patients differed on intraoperation and postoperation pathology; 22 were papillary carcinoma, 3 were follicular carcinoma, 1 were papillary carcinoma and pooly differentiated carcinoma, 1 were malignant lymphoma, 1 were medullar  carcinoma, 1 were small cell cancer. About the operation patterns, 2 were enlarged total thyroidectomy, 8 were  total thyroidectomy, 10 were unilateral lobectomy plus isthmectomy, the lobe、 isthmus and the other patial lobe were resected in 7 patients,  the tumor were resected locally in 1 patient; 5 were bilateral cervical node  dissection, 6 were unilateral cervical node  dissection. There was no dead case,1 were  newly found hoarseness due to vocal cord paralysis, 2 were tic due to hypocalcemia. Conclusion    Intraoperation frozen section was  helpful to the diagnosis and operation of thyroid cancer.The pathology and extent of the cancer is important factor to decide the opration pattern.

    Supraglottic horizontal laryngectomy via supra-anterior commissure approach
    LI Qing-feng, ZHANG Zhong-xiang, ZHANG Guo-kui, LI Qiang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2010, 24(4):  13-15. 
    Abstract ( 1244 )   PDF (322KB) ( 1408 )   Save
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    Objective     To evaluate the indications for supraglottic horizontal laryngectomy via supra-anterior commissure approach. Methods    Eight patients with large, exophytic supraglottic squamous cell carcinomas were selected and treated with supraglottic horizontal laryngectomy via supra-anterior commissure approach. Clinical stages of these patients were T2~3N0~2c without vocal cord involvment and postcricoid invasion. Results    All patients were operated successfully and adequate surgical margins were achieved. Satisfying laryngeal function was reserved and no pharyngeal fistula occurred  in all patients. The duration for oral intake ranged from 8 to 26 days. Five patients were alive in the 2 year follow-up. Conclusion    For large, exophytic supraglottic laryngeal cancer, without ventricle and vocal cord invasion, supra-anterior commissure approach is a good method and the principles of tumor resection can be observed.

    Normal values of auditory brainstem responses in 3-4 months and 5-6 months old infants
    YU Chong-xian, YANG Ke-lin, ZHANG Xiao-min, WANG Ping
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2010, 24(4):  17-20. 
    Abstract ( 4203 )   PDF (356KB) ( 1760 )   Save
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    Objective    To investigate normal parameters of the latency and the thresholds of auditory brainstem response (ABR) in infants of 3-6 months old for early treatment. Methods     40 normal infants and 20 normal adults underwent ABR tests. The infants were divided into 2 groups: group A(3-4months) and group B(5-6 months). Each group consisted of 20 infants (40 ears). The ABR data were analyzed to determine normal ranges for ABR. The influences of gender, age and ears on different sides on testing results were analyzed. Results     At 80dB nHL, the range of latency for wave Ⅰ, Ⅲ, Ⅴ of ABR in 3-4 months old infants was (1.52±0.19) ms, (4.20±0.20) ms, (6.34 ±0.26) ms, respectively; In 5-6 months old infants, the corresponding results were (1.50 ±0.09) ms, (4.05 ±0.16) ms, and (6.16±0.25) ms; In normal adults, counterparts were (1.43±0.10) ms, (3.63±0.15) ms, and (5.50±0.16) ms. The Peak latency (PL) and interval peak latency ( IPL) of infants became shorter with the increase of the age, but failed to reach adult levels even in 56 months old infants. There were significant differences for PL and IPL between group A and control group, and between group B and control group. The PL of wave Ⅲ, Ⅴ and IPL of Ⅰ-Ⅲ,Ⅰ-Ⅴ between group A and group B were significantly different.  PL and IPL of female infants were shorter than the males, except for the IPL of Ⅰ-Ⅲ in group A. There were significant differences in the PL of wave Ⅴ between male and female infants in group A. The data showed that there were significant differences in the PL of Ⅲ, Ⅴ and the IPL of Ⅰ-Ⅴ between male and female infants in group B (P<0.05), but not between the sides of ears (P>0.05). The thresholds of ABR among all infants and adults demonstrated no significant difference. Conclusion     It is necessary to set up normal criteria of ABR for infants so as to diagnose early and follow-up effectively, which makes early interventions possible.

    Therapeutic effects of tympanostomy tube emplacement in the treatments of  20 cases of otitis media with effusion
    LV Mei, XU Er-dong, DU Cui-ping, YAO Yi-wen
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2010, 24(4):  21-22. 
    Abstract ( 1575 )   PDF (318KB) ( 2000 )   Save
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    Objective    To investigate the effectiveness of grommet insertion in the treatments of secretory otitis media. Methods     20 cases of secretory otitis media were chosen and hospitalized from the outpatients who had undertaken 2-3 months of conservative treatments, including medications, puncture of tympanum, or cavum tympani injection. All the cases received grommet insertion. Further, local drug perfusion to the cavum tympani was adminstered regularly. The grommets were kept for about 13 months. Results     The post-operative follow-up times were 6-12 months. The total effective rate was 100% and healing rate was 75%(15/20). The hearing levels of all the cases got improved while the average increase was 20-30 dBHL by pure tone test. Acoustic immitance test showed A type in 15 cases and As type in the other 5. All the tympanic membranes healed naturally without complications, i.e. perforation, shrinkage, or otitis media. Conclusions    Grommet insertion is the primary method to treat refractory secretory otitis media, and the local drugs perfusion is crucial. At the same time, the complications, such as exfoliation of tube, infection, or disunion of tympanium, should be prevented.

    Adenoid hypertrophy and etiology of secretory otitis media in child
    CHEN Qia-xin,ZHANG Zhi-gang,ZHENG Yi-qing
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2010, 24(4):  23. 
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    Objective     To expand the understandings of secretory otitis media (SOM) in children by investigating its causes. Methods    Restrospecitve analysis was made on children with SOM, adenoid hypertrophy, chronic tonsillitis, snoring or obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, who were hospitalized from January 2003 to December 2008. Results    Among 742 cases, there were 173 SOM and 570 adenoidal hypertrophy. 65 cases suffered from the both. The prevelance of SOM in adenoidal hypertrophy cases was 11.4%. Statistical analysis was further performed. Conclusion     Adenoid hypertrophy is not one major factor attributed to SOM in children while various factors should account for.

    Protection of CEP-1347 on noise-damaged cochlea
    ZHOU Bin1, XU Ping1, LI Yan1, MA Xiao-nan1, WU Shuo1, XIA Hong2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2010, 24(4):  25-28. 
    Abstract ( 1216 )   PDF (470KB) ( 1063 )   Save
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    Objective     To explore the protective effect and implications of JNK inhibitor  CEP-1347 on noise-damaged cochlea. Methods    Twenty seven wista r rats were divided randomly into three major groups: group A, the noise group;  group B, the noise plus CEP-1347 group; group C, the noise plus saline group. All rats were exposed to noise. Group B was subcutaneously injected with CEP-1347 while group C was injected with same dose saline before the exposure. The ABR threshold and apoptosis of outer hair cell were detected on the first, fourth and 14thday after exposure in all groups. Results    ABR threshold and apoptosis counts showed no statistical significance between group B and A  on the first day (P>0.05). However, significant differences appeared on day 4, (P<0.05) and day 14 (P<0.01). There was no statistical significance between group C and A during the whole time frame(P>0.05). Conclusion     Inhibitor of JNK pathway, CEP-1347, may alleviate the noise-induced apoptosis and hearing loss to some extent. JNK inhabitor may serve as a new target and subject for NIHL research.

    Expressions of heparanase and nm23-H1 protein and their relationship with invasion and metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma
    ZHU Guo-chen, ZHANG Yong-sheng, ZHENG Xiao-bin, XIAO Da-jiang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2010, 24(4):  30-33. 
    Abstract ( 993 )   PDF (572KB) ( 1057 )   Save
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    Objective    To investigate expressions of heparanase and nm23-H1 protein in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) as well as their relationship with clinicopathological factors. Methods    Expressions of heparanase and nm23-H1 protein in 60 cases of NPC with poor differentiation and 20 cases of chronically inflammatory tissues of nasopharynx were determined by immunohistochemical staining. Results     The positive rate of heparanase protein in tumor tissues was 55% (33/60), which was significantly higher than that in inflammatory tissues (P<0.05). The heparanase protein expression was significantly related to TNM stage, local lymph nodes and distant metastasis of NPC (P<0.05). The positive rate of nm23-H1 protein in tumour tissues was 53.3% (32/60), significantly lower than that in inflammatory tissues (P<0.05), and the nm23-H1 protein expression was significantly related to clinical stage, local lymph nodes and distant metastasis of NPC(P<0.05). Expression of heparanase protein had a significantly negative correlation with that of nm23-H1 protein in NPC. Conclusion    The positive expression of heparanase and the negative expression of nm23-H1 may be significantly related to the invasive infiltration and metastasis in NPC.

    Post-operative comprehensive treatment in patients with chronic rhinitis and rhino sinusitis
    TAN Guo-jie, YAN Yong-yi
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2010, 24(4):  34-36. 
    Abstract ( 1158 )   PDF (481KB) ( 1155 )   Save
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    Objectives    To explore a more proper follow-up method through comparative observation of post-operative outcomes in the two different follow-up groups of chronic rhinitis and rhino sinusitis. Methods    The effectiveness rate of the two groups were compared and analyzed according to the different follow-up methods. Results    In group A, 93 cases were cured, 72 cases were improved and 3 cases had no effect during six month follow-up; all cases were effective during twelve month follow-up (132 cases were cured, 36 cases were improved). In group B, 42 cases were cured, 129 cases were improved and 30 cases had no effect during six month follow-up; 72 cases were cured, 126 cases were improved and 3 cases had no effect during twelve month follow-up. The effective rate between group A and B was significantly different (χ2=55.01, P<0.01). Conclusion    Different follow-up standard can affect readjustment and application of the post-operative comprehensive treatment, and thus affect the overall curative effect of chronic rhinitis and rhino sinusitis.

     Lacrimal passage intubation  in combination with expansive resection of  the inner wall of the maxillary sinus by nasal endoscopy  for maxillary sinus lesion
    YU Zhi-liang, WANG Wei-wei, XING Hai-tao, JIANG Dong, YU Hai-qing
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2010, 24(4):  37. 
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    Objective    To explore a proper endoscopic surgery for maxillary sinus(MS) lesion and to decrease the recurrence after operation. Methods    Since January 1999,  sixtynine cases had been operated upon and followed up for 1 to 9 years(average 4.5years) .After a tube was implanted through the lacrimal passages,the lesion was removed by using XPS3000. The majority of the inner wall of MS was  removed. The bony attachment of the tumor and neighbor tissues were resected by an electric scalpel.    Results    Recurrence was identified in one case (1.45%).The small mass of the lesion had recurrence but was completely removed. One patient with lymphoma died of metastasis within a half year after surgery. All of them had no epiphora and other complications. Conclusion    When appropriate indications are selected, endoscopic surgical technique in combination with lacrimal passage implantation of a tube is proved to be a good method in treating maxillary sinus lesion.

    Expressions of Toll-like receptor 2,Toll-like receptor 3 and Toll-like receptor 4 in experimental allergic rhinitis in rats
    FANG Jian-lin, GAO Xing-qiang, ZHAO De-an
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2010, 24(4):  40-44. 
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    Objective    To observe expressions of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in experimental allergic rhinitis(AR). Methods    46 Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: the AR group ( group A) was immunized by intra-peritoneal injection and intra-nasal instillation of ovalbumin (OVA); The normal control group ( group B) was administered by intra-peritoneal injection and intra-nasal instillation of physiological saline; The other six rats (group C) remained as an untouched healthy control group. Expressions of TLR2,TLR3 and TLR4 were determined by immunohistochemistry in rat nasal mucosa of all the groups. Results    The animal models of allergic rhinitis were successfully made in group A. TLR2 expressed in all the groups. TLR3 showed no expression in three groups. TLR4 expressed in group A, but not in the other two groups. Expressions of TLR2 and TLR3 in all the groups showed no significant difference (P>0.05) . Expression of TLR4 in group A was significantly higher than that in groups B and C (P<0.05 ) . Conclusion    Expression of TLR4 is increased in rat nasal mucosa with experimental allergic rhinitis, which suggests that TLR4 has an effect on allergic inflammation. Expressions of TLR2 and TLR3 showed no difference in all groups.

    Effect of topical  corticosteroids  on  expression of aquaporin 8 in tissues of the nasal polyps
    REN Xiu-min,ZHANG Yan,DUAN Nai-chao,YANG Yan-zhong
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2010, 24(4):  45-47. 
    Abstract ( 1278 )   PDF (552KB) ( 993 )   Save
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    Objective    To observe the effects of budesonide (BUD) spray intra-nasally applied on expression of aquaporin 8 (AQP8) in tissues of the nasal polyps and to explore the effect of AQP8 in the pathogenesis of nasal polyps and the pharmacological mechanisms of Budesonide responsible for the treatment of nasal polyps.  Methods    Forty cases of nasal polyps were randomly divided into two groups , with 20 in the treatment group ( TG) and 20 in the control group (CG) . The TG group received BUD int ranasal spraying for 2 weeks before the operation for the nasal polyps and the CG group received no medicine. Then , immunohistochmistry was used to determine the expression of AQP8 in the tissue samples of the polyps post-operatively. Results    The positive cellular number of AQP8 in the vascular endothelia and glandular epithelia was significantly fewer in the polyp samples of TG than that of CG group( P<0.01) . However, increased number of positive AQP8 epithelia of the nasal polyps was observed in the tissue samples of TG, while there was no significant difference in comparison with CG (P>0.05) . Conclusions    BUD used locally in nasal cavity can decrease the edema degree and reduce the volume of the nasal polyps, and which may be associated with its regulatory effect on expression of AQP8 in tissues of the nasal polyps.

    Analysis of clinical presentation and misdiagnosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma
    QIAN Xiao-fei, CHEN Jian-liang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2010, 24(4):  48-51. 
    Abstract ( 1241 )   PDF (361KB) ( 1607 )   Save
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    Objective    To investigate the clinical presentation and misdiagnostic causes of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods    The data of 82 cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated from November 2002 to November 2009 were analyzed. Results    The clinical presentation included epistaxis, nasal obstruction, tinnitus, hearing loss, headache, mass of neck, cranial nerve involvement and Horner′s syndrome. The positive rate of EBV-VCA-IgA was 93.90%. At the time of initial diagnosis, the rate of misdiagnosis was 67.07% for all cases. Conclusion    The clinical presentation of NPC is complex, and so NPC is prone to be misdiagnosed. It is necessary for a patient with any of these symptoms to receive careful examination for the ear, nasopharynx and nose.

    Investigation on awareness and health education of microbial keratitis among a community population
    ZHANG Ying, WU Xin-yi
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2010, 24(4):  52-54. 
    Abstract ( 1277 )   PDF (310KB) ( 1194 )   Save
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    Objective    To investigate the awareness of microbial keratitis (MK) and current state of health education among a community population. Methods    A questionnaire survey was conducted among 310 community residents, and the data were analyzed by χ2 test. Results    The awareness rate of MK was 32.6% and health education was the major influencing factor for awareness (P<0.01). The most desired way of acquiring information of MK was consulting doctors (46.5%) and the most preferred knowledge was the prevention of MK (69.1%). Conclusion    Community population have low awareness of MK and health education should be conducted in various forms to prevent MK.

    Comparative study of cyclopentolate 1% and atropine 1% in retinoscopic  refraction  for Chinese hyperopic children
    CHEN Ling, WANG Li-hua, WANG Ting
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2010, 24(4):  55. 
    Abstract ( 2054 )   PDF (311KB) ( 1369 )   Save
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    Objective    To compare cycloplegic retinoscopic refractions using cyclopentolate 1% and atropine 1% in Chinese hyperopic children of 3 to 7 years old. Methods    Cyclopentolate 1% was used for cycloplegic retinoscopy on 3 to 7 years old children from outpatient clinic, and 1 week later, atropine 1% was used for cycloplegic retinoscopy on children who had a cycloplegic refraction larger than +0.75D. 50 children (90 eyes) were enrolled in this study. Refraction was presented as spherical equivalent (SE), and paired sample t test and χ2 test were used to analyze the data. Results    (1)The SE of retinoscopy for cyclopentolate 1% and atropine 1% was +3.67±2.39D and +4.52±2.49D, respectively(P<0.001); (2)in esotropic children, the SE of retinoscopy for cyclopentolate 1% and atropine 1% was +3.95±2.30D and +4.91±2.51D, respectively(P<0.001); in children without esotropia, the SE of retinoscopy for cyclopentolate 1% and atropine 1% was +3.32±2.49D and +4.03±2.41D, respectively(P<0.001); the SE difference between cyclopentolate 1% and atropine 1% in esotropic and nonesotropic children was +0.97±0.75D and +0.70±0.40D, respectively(P<0.001);(3)in 55 eyes with SE difference ≤0.75D and 35 eyes with SE difference >0.75D, the number of eyes with cyclopentolate 1% SE ≥+3D and <+3D had no statistical difference (P=0.562). Conclusion    In 3 to 7 years old Chinese hyperopic children, especially esotropic children, atropine 1% is the choice of drug in cycloplegic retinoscopy.

    Comparison between combined therapy of trabeculectomy with cyclocryotherapy and single therapy of cyclocryotherapy for neovascular glaucoma
    NIE Qiao-li1,2,TAO Yuan2,WU Xin-yi1, GUO Bai-ling 2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2010, 24(4):  58-61. 
    Abstract ( 1549 )   PDF (354KB) ( 1201 )   Save
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    Objective    To compare the combined therapy of trabeculectomy with cyclocryotherapy and the single therapy of cyclocryotherapy for neovascular glaucoma. Methods    32 cases of neovascular glaucoma were retrospectively analyzed and randomly divided into two groups:  the cyclocryotherapy group was  treated with cyclocryotherapy, and the combination group with trabeculectomy and cyclocryotherapy. The intraocular pressure (IOP),  anterior chamber reaction and pain intensity were carefully observed after surgery. Results    In the short term after surgery, the average IOP was higher, pain was acuter,and anterior chamber reaction was milder in the cyclocryotherapy group than in the combination group. However, there were no apparent differences in the above three indicators between the two groups during the longterm observation. Conclusion    In the treatment of neovascular glaucoma, the combined therapy of trabeculectomy with cyclocryotherapy can effectively reduce the postoperative IOP and alleviate pain, and thus achieve better therapeutic effect than the single therapy of cyclocryotherapy.

    Clinical efficacy of Qingkailing ophthalmic gel for 80 cases of chronic uveitis
    LI Li-li1, BI Hong-sheng2, XIE Xiao-feng2, GUO Jun-guo3
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2010, 24(4):  62. 
    Abstract ( 1231 )   PDF (391KB) ( 1222 )   Save
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     Objective    To observe the efficacy of Qingkailing ophthalmic gel for chronic uveitis. Methods    80 cases of chronic uveitis were included and randomly divided into control group and treatment group.  All the patients were treated with corticosteroid and pupil dilation eyedrops. In addition, the treatment group was treated with Qingkailing ophthalmic gel. Results    The inflammation was controlled quickly, the use of corticosteroid was decreased, and the disease duration became short with less relapsing rate in the treatment group compared with the control group. The treatment efficacy between the two groups was significantly different. Conclusion    Qingkailing eye gel has a significant efficacy for chronic uveitis.

    Preoperative use of intravitreal Bevacizumab(Avastin) for severe active proliferative diabetic retinopathy
    XU Yu, ZHU Ying, ZHANG Qi, PENG Qing, ZHAO Pei-quan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2010, 24(4):  64-67. 
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    Objective    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Bevacizumab(Avastin) preoperative use in vitrectomy for severe active proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).  Methods    The design of this study was an interventional consecutive, prospective study. Patients were included if they had: (1) tractional retinal detachment, (2) tractionalrhegmatogenous retinal detachment, or (3) tractional detachment complicated with vitreous haemorrhage. Exclusion criteria included: (1) history of thromboembolic events (e.g. cerebral vascular events), or (2) history of vitrectomy in the study eye. An intravitreal injection of 2.5mg (0.1mL) Bevacizumab(Avastin) was preformed 7 days prior to planned vitrectomy. Main outcome measure was feasibility of surgery; secondary outcome measure  was the visual and anatomic result at 6 months.  Results    34 eyes of 30 patients (31-79 years old) with severe active PDR were enrolled. All cases showed remarkable regression of fibrovascular membrane with visually absent vascular component and minimum bleeding during surgical dissection of fibrovascular membrane. Less use of silicone oil was found. Post-operative best correctedvisual acuity improved from pre-operative value (P<0.01). Anatomical attachment was achieved in all patients.  Conclusion    Intravitreal Bevacizumab(Avastin) administrated prior to vitrectomy is well tolerated and reduces neovascularization, and thus facilitates pars plana vitrectomy. The appropriate time of vitrectomy after Bevacizumab(Avastin) injection should be further evaluated.

    Clinical observation of mouse nerve growth factor on retinitis pigmentosa
    YIN Wei-wei, WANG Gang, GONG Yan, LIU Xiao-fang, HUANG Xin-ying
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2010, 24(4):  68-70. 
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    Objective    To assess the clinical effects of mouse nerve growth factor (mNGF) on retinitis pigmentosa(RP).  Methods    22 RP patients (44 eyes) were treated with mNGF intramuscularly. Best-corrected visual acuity, perimetry and electrophysiological measures (EOG, F-ERG and P-VEP) were examined before and after treatment. Results    After therapy, the visions of most patients improved and their visual fields extended. The number of eyes whose scotopic F-ERG waves were undetectable decreased significantly (P<0.05). In the other eyes′ F-ERG waves, the amplitudes increased and implicit time shortened. The number of eyes whose P-VEP waves were detectable increased (P<0.05), the mean amplitude of P100 waves greatly increased (P<0.05),  and their implicit time shortened. The EOG traces became more undulant, and their Arden ratios and Gliem ratios obviously heightened (P<0.05). There was no complication in the treatment. Conclusion    Intramuscular injection of mNGF to treat RP is effective and feasible.