Journal of Otolaryngology and Ophthalmology of Shandong University ›› 2020, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (1): 93-98.doi: 10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2019.534

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Advances in research on the trifoliate factor family in the middle ear respiratory mucosal epithelium

XU Ling1,SUN Yan2   

  1. 1. Medical College of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, Shandong, China;
    2. Department of Otolaryngology Head Neck Surgery, Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Yantai 264000, Shandong, China
  • Online:2020-01-20 Published:2020-03-06

Abstract: Trefoil factor family(TFF)is a protein polypeptide with one or more three-leaf factor domains, which is evolutionarily highly conserved. Three members of TFF(TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3)have been identified in mammals and are mainly synthesized in mucosal tissues, such as gastrointestinal and respiratory mucosa. They are expressed in goblet cells, ciliated epithelial cells, and submucosal glands in the respiratory tract, and match the expression pattern of mucin in the airway mucosa. The tympanic cavity of the middle ear is covered by a continuous upper layer of mucous membrane. The middle ear mucosa of the eustachian tube and the anterior and lower tympanum comprises respiratory epithelial cells. Therefore, TFF can be expressed in middle ear mucosal epithelial cells. TFF may play an important role in promoting the repair of injured middle ear mucosa, completing the protection of middle ear mucosa, as well as in the migration of middle ear mucosal epithelial cells and inflammatory responses. This review focuses on the current status of research on TFF, primarily in the context of respiratory mucosal epithelium in the middle ear, thus exploring new avenues for the study of occurrence and development of otitis media.

Key words: Trifoliate factor family, Respiratory mucosal epithelium, Otitis media, Mucosal repair, Epithelial migration, Protein polypeptide

CLC Number: 

  • R764
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[2] JIAO Xuemei, YANG Yang, LI Chunfeng, ZHANG Xiaolin. Effect of tympanic membrane insertion on the function of eustachian tube in children with secretory otitis media [J]. Journal of Otolaryngology and Ophthalmology of Shandong University, 2022, 36(1): 60-63.
[3] WU Hua, SUN Yongming, ZHENG Jianhua, CAI Xuehua. Application of endoscopic adenoids cryoablation combined with low-temperature plasma tympanostomy in the treatment of 55 children with adenoid hypertrophy and secretory otitis media [J]. Journal of Otolaryngology and Ophthalmology of Shandong University, 2021, 35(2): 71-75.
[4] To analyze the possible causes of poor development of imaging in patients undergoing three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging(3D-FLAIR MRI)after intratympanic gadolinium injection in our hospital in recent years and propose possible solutions. MethodsThis study enrolled a total of 356 patients and 706 ears between January 2017 and June 2020. All patients underwent 3D-FLAIR MRI through intratympanic gadolinium injection. The imaging was poorly developed for a total of 55 patients(70 ears). The possible causes of poor development were analyzed. ResultsPoor images was obtained in 70 ears, including 16 instances in which the signal was not as strong as normal, 14 that were not filled contiguously, and 40 that showed no contrast agent in the inner ear on imaging. A total of 39 ears had simple ipsilateral otitis media as revealed by imaging; among those with chronic otitis media or occult otitis media, 11 showed poor visualization(28.2%). Imaging was poor for four(12.5%)out of 32 ears with sinusitis. Among the three ears with both otitis media and sinusitis, imaging was poor for one ear(33.3%). Among the 632 ears without otitis media/sinusitis, imaging was poor for only 54 ears(8.5%). A statistically significant difference was observed between combined and non-combined otitis media, but not between those non-combined,combined rhinosinusitis, as sell as those conbined with otitis media and nasosinusitis. ConclusionWhen gadolinium is injected into the inner ear through the tympanum, though excluding a recent history of otitis media, chronic or occult otitis media may still be influencing factors for poor imaging development. The present article further discusses other possible influencing factors in each link of angiography and suggests avoiding them to improve the success rate of inner ear gadolinium angiography.. A preliminary study on the causes of poor development in three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging via intratympanic gadolinium injection [J]. Journal of Otolaryngology and Ophthalmology of Shandong University, 2020, 34(5): 61-66.
[5] Labyrinthitis is an infectious disease of the inner ear. Its main clinical manifestations are paroxysmal dizziness, vertigo, and sensorineural hearing loss. This article focuses on the otogenic bacterial labyrinthitis associated with otitis media. According to the pathological manifestations of the inner ear, labyrinthitis can be divided into three types: circumscribed labyrinthitis, serous labyrinthitis, and suppurative labyrinthitis. Circumscribed labyrinthitis, also known as labyrinth fistula, is often complicated by middle ear cholesteatoma, which usually occurs in the horizontal semicircular canal. Serous labyrinthitis is a sterile inflammation in the inner ear caused by bacterial toxins, which often leads to misdiagnosis and misjudgment. Suppurative labyrinthitis is a bacterial infectious inflammation that occurs in the inner ear that often causes severe sensorineural hearing loss and dizziness. At present, otogenic labyrinthitis is no longer rare, although it has not attracted enough attention. This article reviews the different types of otogenic bacterial labyrinthitis in a combination of domestic and foreign literature to provide clinical help for early diagnosis and treatment of patients with this condition.. The progress of otogenic bacterial labyrinthitis research [J]. Journal of Otolaryngology and Ophthalmology of Shandong University, 2020, 34(5): 102-107.
[6] To investigate the effects of the sizes of adenoids and the types of torus tubarius on secretory otitis media in children. MethodsBetween March 2018 and June 2019, 120 children with secretory otitis media with complete diagnosis and treatment data in our department were allocated to the case group, and 120 normal children with corresponding physical examination data were allocated to the control group. Hearing and electronic nasopharyngoscopy were performed for the two groups of children to compare their adenoid sizes and torus tubarius types as well as analyze the association between the sizes of the adenoids and the degree of hearing loss in the case group. ResultsThe proportions of the Ⅲ-Ⅳ adenoid sizes and the Ⅱ-Ⅲ torus tubarius types were 77.5% and 77.5%, respectively, in the case group, which were higher than 37.5% and 46.7%, respectively, in the control group. The risk of disease was higher for the Ⅰ-Ⅱ adenoid sizes and the I torus tubarius type, and the differences were statistically significant(all P<0.05). The chi-squared test was performed to analyze the trends of the adenoid sizes and the torus tubarius types of the two groups, and the differences were also statistically significant(all P<0.05). However, there were no associations between the adenoid size and the torus tubarius type and hearing loss in the case group(r1= 0.135, r2 = 0.049, all P>0.05). ConclusionsAdenoid hypertrophy and the Ⅱ-Ⅲ torus tubarius types are risk factors for secretory otitis media in children. Routine examination and the evaluation of adenoids and the types of torus tubarius are helpful for early diagnosis of secretory otitis media in children.. Relationship between adenoid size and torus tubarius type and secretory otitis media in children [J]. Journal of Otolaryngology and Ophthalmology of Shandong University, 2020, 34(5): 121-126.
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