Objective To evaluate the effect of nasal endoscopic sinus surgery and balloon catheter dilation technology in combination with fibrolaryngoscopy in treating sinus cyst. Methods The clinical data of 14 cases (19 maxillary sinuses, 3 frontal sinuses) using the balloon catheter dilation technology in combination with fibrolaryngoscopy (the balloon group) and 16 cases (23 maxillary sinuses, 8 frontal sinuses) using conventional nasal endoscopic sinus surgery (the conventional group) were retrospectively analyzed. Visual analog scale (VAS) was used to record operative difficulty grade and operation time. Nasal endoscopy, coronal sinus CT scanning, Lund-Kennedy endoscopy and Lund-Mackay CT scan staging scores were used to evaluate the post-operative prognosis. Results The balloon group was longer in operative time than the conventional group (P<0.001). During follow-up periods of 8 and 24 weeks after the operation, the sinus ostia were patency, and the nasal cavities recovered well. Conclusion In the sinus cyst operation, the balloon group and the conventional group equally achieve good curative effects. In the balloon group, the nasal cavity and sinus structures can be preserved with minimal invasion, but the operation is more difficult and longer than those in the conventional group, due to the fibrolaryngoscope.