Characteristics of tinnitus in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
- ZHONG Xiaosheng, YANG Haidi, ZHENG Yiqing
JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2015, 29(4):
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Objective To analyze the characteristics of tinnitus, correlation between tinnitus and hearing loss, effects of tinnitus, and mechanism of tinnitus in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Methods Clinical data of 231 tinnitus patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss were retrospectively reviewed. Results of Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), visual analogue scale (VAS), pure tone audiometry, acoustic emission, tinnitus test and masking test were analyzed. Results ① Characteristics of hearing loss: Low-intermediate frequency hearing loss (rise type) was 8.7%, high-frequency hearing loss (fall type) was 26%, flat-type was 19%, total-deafness type was 34.2%, irregular type was 12.1%. ② Frequency of tinnitus: Low-frequency (<500 Hz) tinnitus was 21.2%, medium-frequency (51-2 000 Hz) tinnitus was 23.4%, high-frequency (>2 000 Hz) tinnitus was 52.8%, unmatched tinnitus was 2.6%. Of hearing loss with low-intermediate frequency, low, medium and high frequency tinnitus was 75%, 15% and 10% respectively. Of hearing loss with medium-high frequency, low, medium and high frequency tinnitus was 13.3%, 26.7% and 60.0% respectively. Of total deafness, low, medium and high frequency tinnitus was 17.1%, 19.0% and 63.3% respectively. There was an linear relationship between the frequency hearing loss and tinnitus frequency (r=0.590, P<0.01). ③ Tinnitus volume: Tinnitus volume was 0-30 dB HL(19.5%), 31-60 dB HL(26%), 60-90 dB HL(44.2%), >90 dB HL (27.8%), and unmatched (2.6%). Tinnitus volume was correlated with the degree of hearing loss (r=0.216, P<0.05). ④ Tinnitus disability level: According to THI scores, the tinnitus disability level was: grade 1 (11.7%), grade 2 (19%), grade 3 (28.6%), and grade 4 (40.7%). ⑤ The characteristics of THI and VAS scores: there was no correlation between THI scores and degree of hearing loss (r=0.087, P=0.287), no correlation between VAS score and degree of hearing loss (r=0.002, P=0.982), no correlation between THI and the logarithm of tinnitus frequency (r=-0.056, P=0.402), no correlation between VAS score and frequency of tinnitus (r=-0.003, P=0.970), no correlation between THI score and tinnitus volume, r=0.03, P=0.563), no correlation between VAS score and tinnitus volume (r=0.136, P=0.110). Conclusion ① High-frequency tinnitus with idiopathic sudden deafness is the most common among all types of hearing loss. ② There is a significant correlation between tinnitus frequency and type of hearing loss. ③ The frequency of the greatest hearing loss is consistent with the frequency of tinnitus. ④ Tinnitus disability level is grade 3-4 during the acute period of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. ⑤ THI and VAS scores are not correlated with degree of hearing loss, tinnitus, tinnitus volume and frequency.