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Table of Content

    16 April 2014 Volume 28 Issue 2
      
    Animal model of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrom with hypertension in rats
    MU Chao, WANG Yan, LI Yan-zhong
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2014, 28(2):  1-3.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2014.024
    Abstract ( 1228 )   PDF (1291KB) ( 407 )   Save
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    Objective    To build an animal model of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrom(OSAHS)with hypertension.  Methods    10 Wistar rats which were injected 1mL Sodium Hyaluronate into the palatoglossal arch, palatopharyngeal arch and root of the tongue of served as the experimental group, and the other 10 Wistar rats as the control group. The electroencephalogram and oro-nasal airflow were recorded by PSG when rats were under anesthesia and measuring arterial systolic pressure (SBP) and OSAHS periodic. Results    ① The experimental group showed differences in apnea index (AI), the longest apnea and the lowest concentration of blood oxygen saturation before and after injection of Sodium Hyaluronate when under light anesthesia (P<0.05); ② SBP in the two groups were insignificant before building the model. The SBP of the experimental group began to rise at 4 weeks and were obvious increased when compared with the control group at 8 weeks (P<0.01). Conclusion    The animal model of OSAHS with hypertension in rats established by injection of Sodium Hyaluronate was steady and credible.
    Relationship between the abnormal behavior and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in children with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome
    YANG Shan-lei, FU Li, WANG Yan, LI Yan-zhong
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2014, 28(2):  4-6.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2014.034
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    Objective    To explore the possible mechanism of cognitive function deterioration in children with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome(OSAHS). Methods    The behavior problems and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured in 40 children with OSAHS and 22 children with habitual snoring who underwent overnight polysomnography. 22 healthy children served as the control group. Results    The ratio of abnormal behavior in OSAHS and habitual snoring children was higher than that in healthy group(P<0.01), while there was no difference between the two groups (P>0.05). The content of BDNF in OSAHS and habitual snoring children was lower than the healthy group(P<0.01), while there was no difference between the two groups (P>0.1). The content of BDNF in OSAHS children accompanied by abnormal behavior was lower than that without abnormal behavior(P<0.01), and the difference was also found in habitual snoring children(P<0.05). Conclusion    OSAHS and habitual snoring children have more behavior problems, BDNF levels are lower in children with OSAHS and habitual snoring, and the levels of BDNF are related to the abnormal behavior in these children.
    Diagnosis value assessment of computered tomography in glossopharyngeal obstruction in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome
    WANG Xiao-yan, LI Shu-hua
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2014, 28(2):  7-11.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2014.025
    Abstract ( 1034 )   PDF (894KB) ( 332 )   Save
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    Objective    To compare NPT-PSG with computered tomography (CT) scan which was also used to evaluate the glossopharyngeal obstruction. Methods    Sixty-five patients with OSAHS diagnosed by PSG were enrolled in this study. All the patients were successfully examined by NPT-PSG and CT scan. The correlation analysis between NPT-PSG and glossopharyngeal airway cross area (S) were conducted. And the coincidence of diagnosing glossopharyngeal obstruction of the two methods was calculated. Results    There was no significant correlation between NPT-PSG and glossopharyngeal airway cross area, the correlation coefficient of AHI and LSaO2 with S was 0.02 and 0.085 respectively. There were 7 and 37 patients diagnosed as glossopharyngeal obstruction by CT and NPT-PSG respectively. The concordance of the two methods was poor, assessed by kappa coefficient 0.055, P>0.05. Conclusion     The coincidence between the CT scan and NPT-PSG is poor. Multiple diagnosis tool and aggregate analysis should be used in localization glossopharyngeal obstruction in OSAHS.
    Evaluation of right ventricular function by quantitative tissue velocity imaging in children with obstructive sleep apea-hypopnea syndrome
    MU Hong1, LIU Jun-jie2, NI Cai-yun3, GONG Ke-bo1, LI Dong-mei1, ZHANG Jian-ji1, LI Hai-yan4.
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2014, 28(2):  12-16.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2013.314
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    Objective    To evaluate the early changes of right ventricular function before and after adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy in children with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome(OSAHS) by quantitative tissue velocity imaging (QTVI), and investigate the influence of OSAHS on right ventricular function and application of QTVI. Methods    20 normal controls and 55 OSAHS children with adenoid and/or tonsil hypertrophy diagnosed by polysomnography (PSG) were enrolled. According to AHI, the patients were further divided into mild, moderate or severe group. Right ventricular function of all subjects were assessed by OTVI. 39 children with moderate to severe OSAHS underwent adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy. After 6 months, 25 children received another PSG and QTVI tests. The data was analyzed. Results    Compared with the normal group, systolic peak velocity(Vs) of the tricuspid annulus were decreased in moderate and severe OSAHS (P<0.05), while the early diastolic peak velocity(Ve)、 late diastolic peak velocity(Va) and ratio of Ve/Va were not (P>0.05). In moderate to severe OSAHS, Vs were positively correlated with AHI (R=0.471, P<0.05), but negatively correlated with LSaO2 (R=0.410, P<0.05). 6 months later after adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy, the Vs of tricuspid significantly was increased, while AHI was decreased and LSaO2 was obviously increased (P<0.05). But compared with the normal group, no difference was found (P<0.05). Conclusion    It was demonstrated that the right ventricular systolic function of children with moderate to severe OSAHS decreased to varying degrees at early stage. Tricuspid annular velocity detected by QTVI could reflect sensitively the early changes of right ventricular function. Adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy were effective methods to treat childhood OSAHS, which could reverse myocardial dysfunction.
    Relationship between serum fetuin A, carotid atherosclerosis index and carotid intima-media thickness in normotensive patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
    GUO Zhi-juan1, LI Pei-hua1, ZHANG Xiao-wen2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2014, 28(2):  17-21.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2013.280
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    Objective    To explore the relationship between serum fetuin A, carotid atherosclerosis index(CSI) and carotid intima-media thickness(cIMT) in normotensive patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Methods    64 cases of OSAS patients with normal blood pressure were selected as experimental group while 30 healthy people as control. Differences of serum fetuin A, carotid atherosclerosis index  and carotid intima-media thickness between the two groups were measured and compared. Apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was determined with sleep monitor. The relationship between AHI and CSI/cIMT and correlation of fetuin-A with CSI/cIMT were analyzed. Results    The carotid atherosclerosis index and carotid intima-media thickness in experimental group were significantly higher than the control group,  but serum fetuin-A was significantly lower (P<0.05). Meanwhile, AHI of the experimental group was also significantly higher than the control (P<0.05), while the lowest oxygen saturation was significantly lower (68.42±11.65% vs. 92.55±4.64%, P<0.05). In the experimental group, Pearson correlation analysis showed AHI was positively correlated with cIMT and CSI (r=0.421, r=0.502; P<0.05) when fetuin-A was negatively correlated with cIMT and CSI (r=-0.515, r=-0.404; P<0.05). Conclusion    Reduction of serum fetuin-A is associated with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in the patients with normotensive OSAS.
    The diagnostic effectiveness of  portable monitors device  in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome
    LIANG Song-min1, GUO Yong-wei2, ZHAO Xia1
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2014, 28(2):  22-25.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2014.059
    Abstract ( 2269 )   PDF (911KB) ( 1351 )   Save
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    As we know, in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) is considered to be a gold standard for diagnosis of OSAHS, however, because of the expensive equipments and the complex inspection procedure, as well as the high requirements for technical staff have limited its clinical usefulness and popularity. In recent years, portable monitor device (PMD) attracts more and more attention in clinic. This article is to review the diagnostic value of PMD for OSAHS.
    Oxymetazoline nasal spray improved nCPAP compliance in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome patients with nasal obstruction
    LUO Wei, WANG Xu-ping, CHEN Zhen-yu, ZHANG Jia, WU Lin, HE Fei, WANG Pei-jie, WANG Gan, HAO Hong
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2014, 28(2):  26-28.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2013.303
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    Objective    To evaluate the effectiveness of oxymetazoline nasal spray in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) patients with nasal obstruction by nasal continuous positive airway pressure(nCPAP) therapy. Methods    60 patients diagnosed as moderate to severe OSAHS with nasal obstruction underwent a five-night nCPAP therapy.  They were ramandly divided into oxymetazoline therapy group and non-oxymetazoline therapy group before using nCPAP. The ESS score and the differences of effective nCPAP pressure before and after oxymetazoline therapy were analyzed. Results    The ESS score were significant reduced after oxymetazoline therapy, with a significant decreased effective treatment pressure. Conclusion    Oxymetazoline nasal spray can reduce nCPAP pressure in the treatment of OSAHS patients with nasal obstruction. nCPAP compliance could be improved due to the reduction of the pressure.
    Effect of oral appliance therapy on psychological state of patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome
    XIA Chun-peng1, LIN Yan-hui2, LI Yan1, LI Ke-yi1, ZHANG Bin2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2014, 28(2):  29-32.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2014.052
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    Objective    To explore the influence of oral appliance therapy on the anxiety, depression and psychological state of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) patients. Methods    48 mild or moderate OSAHS patients were treated with oral appliance. The PSG examination, ESS, SCL-90, SAS and SDS questionnaire were adopted to evaluate efficacy of oral appliance, anxiety, depression and psychological state in all patients before the treatment and 6 months after the treatment. Results    The objective and subjective symptoms of OSAHS patients were significantly reduced. The scores of psychological state before the treatment were significantly higher than the average scores of Chinese norm. After 6 months treatment, the scores of anxiety, depression and psychological state in OSAHS were significantly reduced compared to those of pre-treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion    OSAHS patients are more anxious and depressive than the normal. Oral appliance treatment can conduce to mental rehabilitation of OSAHS patients.
    Research progress of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and cardiovascular diseases
    ZHAO Yuan-qing1, GUO Jia-liang1, ZHANG Feng2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2014, 28(2):  33-37.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2013.211
    Abstract ( 1861 )   PDF (883KB) ( 681 )   Save
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    Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a common condition caused by intermittent airway collapse during sleep resulting in repetitive hypoxia and excessive daytime sleepiness. The epidemiologic evidence has confirmed that OSAHS can drastically promote the risks of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias,coronary arterial disease,and congestive heart failure. However, the mechanisms behind the increased cardiovascular diseases risks in OSAHS remain elusive. The potential pathophysiological interaction of cardiovascular diseases with OSAHS, and improvement of cardiovascular diseases after OSAHS treatment make the studies on the correlation between OSAHS and cardiovascular diseases to be hotspot in recent years.
    Robot-assisted transaxillary thyroid gland lobectomy: one case report
    ZHUANG Da-yong, HE Qing-qing, FAN Zi-yi, JING Da-hai, ZHOU Peng
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2014, 28(2):  38-40.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2014.001
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    Objective    To review the initial experience of transaxillay robot-assisted thyroid gland lobectomy. Method    On June 22nd 2014, one patient was performed robot-assisted thyroid gland lobectomy by a transaxillay approach using the da-Vinci surgical system in our department. Results    We successfully performed thyroid gland lobectomy. The pathologic report was nodular goiter. The operation time was 148 minutes. No postoperative complications occurred. Conclusion    Regarding our early experience, robot-assisted thyroid gland lobectomy is a safe, feasible and cosmetically good procedure.
    Apoptosis  of Hep-2 cells induced  by celecoxib
    ZHAO Yong-qiang1, FENG Hui-wei1, YU Ke-na1, SHI Mei2, FAN Xian-liang1
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2014, 28(2):  41-45.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2013.358
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    Objective    To investigate the mechanism of celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, in inducing cell apoptosis in human laryngocarcinoma Hep-2 cells. Methods    MTT was used to observe the proliferation of Hep-2 cells treated with various doses of celecoxib. Cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and morphologic observation under fluorescent microscopy with Hoechst33258 staining. Protein expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, COX-2 were examined  by western blot. Caspase-3 activation was examined  by western blot. Results    MTT results showed that celecoxib could inhibit the proliferation of Hep-2 cells in a time- and concentration- dependent manner. Hoechst33342 fluorescent staining showed the nucleus gradually appeared agglutination and  fragmentation after the treatment of celecoxib. Apoptosis rate in the groups treated with 70 and 100μ mol/L celecoxib  were (28.9±2.74)% and (32.7±3.96)% correspondingly. Wwestern blot showed that celecoxib could down-regulate the levels of expressions of COX-2 and Bcl-2 protein, up-regulate Bax protein’s expression, and activate caspase-3. Conclusion    Celecoxib  can effectively inhibit the proliferation of Hep-2 cells and induce the apoptosis of Hep-2 cells. The induction of apoptosis may be related to the increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio  and activation of  caspase-3.
    The association between rs2910164 G>C polymorphism in pre-microRNA-146a and laryngeal cancer in Jiangsu Han population
    LIN Dan, DONG Wei-da, LU Mei-ping, XING Guang-qian, DONG Jia-di, ZHANG Wei-qiang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2014, 28(2):  46-50.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2014.022
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    Objective    To investigate the association between rs2910164 G>C polymorphism in pre-microRNA-146a (pre-miR-146a) and laryngeal cancer. Methods    We conducted a case-control study with 204 cases and 440 cancer-free controls by collecting general and clinical characteristics, and genotyped the rs2910164 polymorphism using the TaqMan method. Logistic regression model was used to evaluate genetic effects on the development of laryngeal cancer. Results    We found that rs2910164 was significantly associated with the increased laryngeal cancer risk (GC/CC vs. CC: OR adjusted=2.49, 95% CI=1.57-3.94). In the stratification analysis, pronounced among smokers, drinkers and no family history of cancer (P<0.05 for all) were increased risks, and rs2910164 in combination with smoking and drinking effected more deeply(OR=6.39, 95% CI=2.72-15.0 for smoking with rs2910164 GC/CC; OR=4.19, 95% CI=2.24-7.83 for drinking with rs2910164 GC/CC). Conclusion    The rs2910164 C allele in miR-146a was associated with increased laryngeal cancer risk, which may act as a potential biomarker for diagnosis of laryngeal cancer.
    Clinical features of postoperative pulmonary thromboembolism associated with laryngeal  and hypopharyngeal carcinoma
    WANG Ying-jun, SUN Yan, LI Wei, HUA Hui, HUANG Yi-chuan, GE Rui-feng, HAN Min
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2014, 28(2):  51-54.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2014.015
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    Objective    To analyze the clinical characteristics of pulmonary thromboembolism after the surgery of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma, and evaluate the diagnosis and prevention of such complication. Methods    A retrospective study was performed in 11 cases of postoperative pulmonary thromboembolism after laryngeal or hypopharyngeal carcinoma surgery.  The symptoms, auxiliary examinations and treatment were analyzed. Results    Among  453 laryngeal carcinoma and 134 hypopharyngeal carcinoma patients who underwent the surgery , there were 11 cases of postoperative pulmonary thromboembolism  (1.9%). Chest distress and breath-hold were the most common clinical manifestations. 8 cases were diagnosed by computed tomography pulmonary angiography,  and 3 cases were diagnosed by ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy. All of the 11 cases received anticoagulant treatment. Conclusion    sThe pulmonary thromboembolism after laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma surgery is not rare. The preoperative evaluation and postoperative prevention are important.
    Expression and significance of p-PTEN, p-Akt and p-FoxO1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma
    ZHANG Zhong-hua1, WANG Xue-hai2, CAI Xiao-lan3
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2014, 28(2):  55-57.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2013.339
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    Objective    To investigate the significance of signal transduction of PTEN/Akt/FoxO1 in carcinogenesis and development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods    The expressions of p-PTEN, p-Akt and p-FoxO1 were measured by Western Blot technology in 38 cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and 20 cases of chronic nasopharyngitis tissue.  Results    In 38 cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, the gray scale of p-PTEN ( 0.53±0.04) was obviously lower than that in chronic nasopharyngitis tissue(P<0.05); the gray scale of p-Akt (1.72±0.31) was obviously higher than that in chronic nasopharyngitis tissue(P<0.05); the gray scale of p-FoxO1 (1.35±0.20) was obviously higher than that in chronic nasopharyngitis tissue(P<0.05). By Pearson’s correlated analysis, the expression of p-PTEN was negative correlation to the expression of the p-AKt(r=-0.39, P<0.05), meanwhile,the expression of p-PTEN was negative correlation to that of p-FoxO1 (r=-0.51, P<0.05).  Conclusion    The signal transduction of PTEN/Akt/FoxO1 was effect on carcinogenesis and development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma significantly.The loss of PTEN phosphorylation can make the phosphorylation of Akt and Fox01 step up, which can lead to the cellular malignant transformation.
    Relationship between children with adenoid vegetation and inflammatory mediators and cyokines
    ZHANG Li-jing1,2, SONG Xi-cheng1, JIA Chuan-liang1,3, WANG Xiao-yong1,3, ZHANG Hua1, WANG Qiang1
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2014, 28(2):  58-61.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2013.349
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    Objective    To explore the relationship between serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-4(IL-4), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and the degree of adenoid vegetation and body mass index(BMI) in children with adenoid vegetation. Methods    87 cases of children with adenoid vegetation confirmed by X-ray imaging of nasopharynx (experimental group) and 49 normal subjects (control group) were enrolled. The height, weight and body mass index (BMI)of 136 children were documented. The size of vegetation was indicated by the ratio between the adenoid and nasopharyngeal diameter(A/N). With fasting venous blood, the serum levels of TNF-α、 IL-4  were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (ELISA) and serum ECP levels were measured by Pharmacia CAP System ECP FEIA. The relationship between the degrees of adenoid vegetation and BMI and the levels of TNF-α、 IL-4、 ECP were analyzed by  SPASS 17.0. Results    The serum levels of TNF-α、 IL-4 in experimental group were higher than those in controls (P<0.05), but the levels of ECP were similar in the two groups (P>0.05). Levels of TNF-α and the degree of adenoid vegetation were positively correlated (mild degree: r=0.98, P<0.05; mediate degree: r=0.92, P<0.05; severe degree: r=0.9,  P<0.05); Levels of IL-4, but not ECP,  were also corelated positively with the degree of adenoid vegetation (mild degree: r=0.95, P<0.05; mediate degree:r=0.94, P<0.05;severe degree: r=0.99, P<0.05) . Conclusion    The serum levels of TNF-α、 IL-4 in children with adenoid vegetation increase to some extent, and their levels are corelated positively with the degree of adenoid vegetation as reflected by A/N ratio.,but not with BMI. However, the serum levels of ECP show no obvious correlation.
    Diagnosis and surgical treatment of carotid body tumor
    SUN Zhen-feng, ZHANG Jia, SHEN Bin, ZHANG Bai-tao, DONG Pin
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2014, 28(2):  62-64.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2013.267
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    Objective    To explore the carotid body tumor (CBT) diagnosis, surgical treatment, and prevention of postoperative complications.Methods    The clinical data of 15 CBT patients were reviewed. Results    According to Shamblin classification, there are 2 cases of type Ⅰ, 8 cases of type Ⅱ, and 5 cases of typeⅢ. Preoperative imaging evaluation included ultrasound, CT, MRA, and DSA, 64-row CT scan combined with CTA angiography. Among the patients, 14 cases underwent operation. The surgeries included total tumor removal with or without external carotid artery resection,and tumor removal with carotid artery resection and reconstruction. Postoperative pathological examinations were all benign. All patients were followed up for 3-112 months. There were 2 cases of unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, 1 case of unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy, and 1 case of unilateral cervical sympathetic nerve injury. No cerebral vascular accident and death happened. No local recurrence. Conclusion    The 64-row CTA is the prefered method in the diagnosis, evaluation of carotid body tumor before operation. Correct diagnosis, thorough preoperative evaluation and reasonable operation can reduce the risks of postoperative complications.
    Correlation of skin prick test of dust mites with serum specific IgE and age
    YANG Yang1,2, LIU Ji-xiang2, SONG Fu-cun2, CHENG Li-ya1
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2014, 28(2):  65-67.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2013.313
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    Objective    To evaluate the correlation of skin prick test (SPT) of dust mites with serum specific IgE(sIgE)and age. Methods    A total of 160 patients with allergic rhinitis received SPT. And sIgE was detected. The correlation of skin prick test (SPT) of dust mites with serum specific IgE(sIgE)and age was analyzed. Results    There was positive correlation between the results of SPT and grades of sIgE and negative correlation between the results of SPT and age. Conclusion    There was significant correlation between SPT of dust mites and sIgE and age.
    Effects of budesonide on eosinophil apoptosis in nasal lavage fluid of allergic rhinitis rats
    ZHUANG Xiao-yan1,2, LI Qin2, CHEN Yan-lin2, MA Yan-yi2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2014, 28(2):  68-71.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2013.316
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    Objective    To observe the effect of budesonide on the eosinophil(EOS) apoptosis from nasal lavage fluid in allergic rhinitis (AR) rats. Methods    AR model was established by sensitizer of ovalbumin and aluminum hydroxide. Rats were divided into the control group (group A, n=10), the allergic rhinitis group (group B, n=10) and the budesonide group (group C, n=10). In days 31 to 38 after the establishment of AR, each rat of the group B was administrated by instillation of 50μL(1.28μg/μl) budesonide into each of the nasal cavities one time per day, while each rat of the group C was administrated by instillation of 50μL phosphate buffer in the same way. In days 39, the nasal lavage fluid was obtained to measure the percentage of the apoptotic eosinophils and eosinophils with flowcytometry. Results    The percentage of EOS in nasal lavage fluid of the group C was 5.10±0.51 which was evidently lower than that of the group B (29.37±4.33, P<0.01). The eosinophil apoptosis rate in group C was 18.48±2.84 which was evidently higher than in group B (3.36±0.50, P<0.01). Furthermore significantly negative correlation was observed between the percentage of EOS and apoptosis rate in the nasal lavage fluid (r=-0.892, P<0.05). Conclusion    Budesonide can significantly reduce the eosinophil infiltration and increase eosinophil apoptosis so as to treat allergic rhinitis.
    Expression of EMP1 in sinonasal inverted papilloma and its relationship with metaplasia
    JIN Peng1, LI Chun-wei2, LI Ying-ying2, ZHAO Li1, WANG De-yun2, SHI Li3
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2014, 28(2):  72-75.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2014.067
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    Objective    To investigate whether epithelial membrane protein 1 (EMP1) plays an important role in the epithelial remodeling of sinonasal inverted papilloma (SNIP).  Methods    Papilloma tissues were obtained from 25 SNIP patients. Biopsies of inferior turbinates mucosa from 15 healthy subjects were used as controls. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR were performed to compare the expression levels of EMP1 between tissues from SNIP patients and healthy controls.  Results    A moderate epithelial metaplasia (12/25, 48%) showing irregular stratification with the increase of transitional/squamous cells was the most common epithelial alteration occurred in the SNIP tissues. Both EMP1 protein and mRNA levels significantly decreased in SNIP tissues compared with the controls. Moreover, EMP1 expression level was significantly negatively correlated with the severity level of epithelial metaplasia in SNIPs.  Conclusion    Down-regulation of EMP1 is associated with severe level of epithelial metaplasia in SNIP epithelium, and it could be a biomarker for evaluating aberrant epithelial remodeling in SNIP epithelium.
    Primary culture and identification of fibroblasts cells from nasal polyps under normoxia and hypoxia
    LI Tao, ZHU Hui-tao, ZHOU Jie-yu, LI Xue-zhong, CAI Xiao-lan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2014, 28(2):  76-80.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2013.342
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    Objective    To investigate the primary culture and identification of fibroblasts cells from nasal polyps under normoxia and hypoxia for further study on their biological features. Methods    The specimens of nasal polyps(20 cases)endoscopically removed in our department from 2012 to 2013 were placed into 4℃ sterile phosphate-buffered saline(PBS)solution supplemented with penicillin and streptomycin, repeatedly washed, immersed, cut into pieces, and tubed into two portions to EP, respectively with 0.1%collagenase Ⅰ and 1mL of dispase Ⅱ overnight. The next day, the samples were removed, pipetted slightly to detach the epithelia, after to count, and added in broth (DMEM+10% fetal bovine serum+1×105U/L penicillin+100mg/L streptomycin), respectively in normoxia and hypoxia conditions. Besides normoxia training with air as the mixed gas, oxygen volume fraction of about 20%; hypoxia training with nitrogen as the mixed gas, regulating oxygen volume fraction of 5%, the other culture conditions were the same with the volume fraction of 5% CO2 and saturated humidity at 37℃. Under an inverted phase microscope, the cells morphology, proliferation, growth and infection were observed. The proliferation of cells was tested by CCK-8. Results    Overall improvement was observed in the number of cells in dispaseⅡ and was higher than that of type collagenase Ⅰ(P<0.05). Nasal polyp fibroblasts in normoxia and hypoxia condition training had no obvious difference. Conclusion    DispaseⅡ can be used to obtain more cells. In normoxia and hypoxia condition, the above mentioned model is more suitable for primary culture due to its fast proliferation, stable and reliable cell supply for nasal polyps research.
    Idiopathic macular hole surgery prognosis based on macular hole size
    LI Hao, ZHOU Fang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2014, 28(2):  81-83.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2014.012
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    Objective    To explore the prognostic factors of idiopathic macular hole based on form of the macular hole. Method    The clinical data of 30 patients with idiopathic macular hole were retrospectively analyzed. Results    The base diameter and minimum liner diameter of patients with improved visual acuity were smaller than those of patients without improved visual acuity, and there was a negative correlation between those two indicators and prognosis. The difference between height of macular holes had no statistical significance. Conclusion    Base diameter and minimum liner diameter are good indexes for prognosis of idiopathic macular hole.
    Clinical study on glaucoma patients’ quality of life and related factors
    TAO Yu, ZHANG Shi-xi, CHAI Xue-rong, SHEN Jia-quan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2014, 28(2):  84-86.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2014.037
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    Objective    To study glaucoma patients’ quality of life and influencing factors.  Methods    The quality of life of 120 cases of glaucoma was evaluated with the scale of quality of life for diseases with visual impairment.  Results    Scores of glaucoma patients’ quality of life were generally decreased. It showed a statistically significant difference between groups based on visual impairment(P<0.01) or health education(P<0.01); it also showed a statistically difference between groups based on gender(P<0.05). The visual impairment was the significant factor to the patients’ quality of life. Health education and gender were the main influencing factors. Conclusion    The scores of quality of life of glaucoma patients are generally low. Doctors should pay attention to patients’ social, psychological and other factors while protecting visual function in patients with glaucoma. It is necessary to give enough health education and psychological intervention to improve their quality of life.
    Effect of YAG laser on corneal endothelial cellsin posterior capsule opacification
    WANG Jian-min1, LI Jian-ping2, LI Lin-lin3, LIU Jie-hui2, ZHENG Min2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2014, 28(2):  87-89.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2013.331
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    Objective    To discuss the effect of YAG laser treatment on corneal endothelial cells in patients with posterior capsule opacification. Methods    Experimental group: 32 patients (32 eyes) which had posterior capsule opacification were cured with YAG, at the same time, corneal endothelial cell density and proportion of hexagonal cells were measured before the operation and 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months postoperative. Control group: 32 eyes had posterior capsule opacification (after Phaco+IoL) without YAG laser served as the control group. Results    During the postoperative follow-up period, there was no statistically significant difference from corneal endothelial cell density changes, but the decrease of the hexagonal cells in the experimental group was more evident than in the control group. Conclusion    A certain energy range of laser had no significant effect on corneal endothelial cell density, but can  affect the endothelial cells with normal form.
    Corneal confocal microscopy in diagnosis of fungal keratitis advantage
    WANG Quan1,2, LI Kai-jun2, GAO Dong-hong2, LU Hui2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2014, 28(2):  90-91.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2013.363
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    Objective    To explore the advantages of corneal confocal microscope in the diagnosis of fungal keratitis. Methods    32 cases of fungal keratitis underwent corneal tissue lesion scraping, fungal culture and corneal confocal microscopy. Results    The detection rate was 94.3% in 32 cases of keratitis by confocal microscopy; hyphae or spores were found by smears, the detection rate of 42.8%; fungal culture found fungal colonies, the detection rate of 54.3%. Conclusion     In diagnosis of fungal keratitis, corneal confocal microscopy is a simple method with direct and clear view in vivo, high repeatability and noninvasion.
    Modified application and curative effect of double eyelid locator in double eyelid surgery
    OU Zhao-xi, ZHANG Guang-hui, XIANG Shu-mei
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2014, 28(2):  92-94.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2013.321
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    Objective    To apply the improved double eyelid locator in the treatment of ultra-force type single eyelid patients. Methods    212 cases of ultra-force type single eyelid enrolled in the eye clinic of Dongguan Changping Hospital from January 2011 to February 2013 were randomly divided into the control group and the observation group. The observation group exploited double eyelid locator in double eyelid surgery, while the control group was treated by the conventional incision method in double eyelid surgery. The average operation time, swollen degree of eyelid and fluency and symmetry of double eyelid of the two groups 7 days after surgery. Results    The postoperative eyelid shapes were satisfying in both groups. The differences of average operation time, swollen degree of eyelid and fluency and symmetry of double eyelid in the two groups were all significant. Conclusion    Modified application of double eyelid locator in the surgery of ultra-force type single eyelid patients has the advantages of easy operation, minimal invasion, quick recovery and good curative effect.