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Table of Content

    16 December 2017 Volume 31 Issue 6
      
    Borderline thyroid tumor in the new World Health Organization classification of 2017.
    LIU Zhiyan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2017, 31(6):  1-4.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.1.2017.037
    Abstract ( 1328 )   PDF (3476KB) ( 328 )   Save
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    The World Health Organization(WHO)classification of endocrine tumors was published on June 26, 2017. The classification of borderline thyroid tumors was proposed and it increased the spectrum of thyroid diseases, which includes hyalinizing trabecular tumors and other encapsulated, follicular-patterned thyroid tumors that are morphologically and behaviorally indeterminate between follicular adenomas and follicular carcinoma/follicular-variant papillary thyroid carcinomas. The latter was further classified into tumors of uncertain malignant potential and non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasms with papillary-like nuclear features, according to whether questionable capsular and/or vascular invasion are present. Tumors of uncertain malignant potential were further divided into well-differentiated tumors with uncertain malignant potential and follicular tumors of uncertain malignant potential according to whether papillary thyroid carcinoma-type nuclear features are present.
    Interpretation of the eighth edition of thyroid cancer tumor-node-metastasis staging by American Joint Committee on Cancer.
    QIU Jie, SUN Shasha, SUN Yan
    J Otolaryngol Ophthalmol Shandong Univ. 2017, 31(6):  5-8.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.1.2017.039
    Abstract ( 1544 )   PDF (1070KB) ( 516 )   Save
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    The tumor-node-metastasis(TNM)staging system is currently the most common tumor staging system worldwide. After examining tumors, nodes, and metastases(per TNM staging), the corresponding general stages can be determined, namely, stages Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ, and Ⅳ. The American Joint Committee on Cancer(AJCC)has developed a TNM staging standard that has been widely recognized and applied. The eighth edition of the tumor TNM staging system released by AJCC will be implemented globally by January 1, 2018. In this paper, the content of the thyroid cancer TNM staging standard in the eighth edition of AJCC and the changes relative to the seventh edition will be interpreted in detail.
    Identification and protection of the parathyroid glands during thyroidectomy.
    ZHONG Qi
    J Otolaryngol Ophthalmol Shandong Univ. 2017, 31(6):  9-11.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.1.2017.047
    Abstract ( 520 )   PDF (970KB) ( 300 )   Save
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    Hypoparathyroidism after thyroidectomy, is a severe complication which reduces the quality of life after surgery. We reviewed the main techniques for prevention of hypoparathyroidism and hypocalcemia, based on the diagnostic criteria, correlative factors, and parathyroid anatomy and physiology. In particular, the identification techniques and auxiliary tools for the identification of the parathyroid glands have been introduced in this paper.
    Optimal management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in children.
    XU Shuhang, LI Chunrui, LIU Chao
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2017, 31(6):  12-15.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.1.2017.038
    Abstract ( 456 )   PDF (582KB) ( 193 )   Save
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    Pediatric thyroid masses are rare and their risk of malignancy is high; however, the prognosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in children is more favorable. It is important to assess the risk of malignancy based on medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, imaging tests, and fine needle aspiration cytology. Although the treatment of benign thyroid nodules in children is more conservative, total thyroidectomy is always the first choice for children with thyroid carcinoma. Whole body scans with radioactive iodine should be performed regularly after surgery alongside thyroglobulin determination.
    Standardization of the diagnosis and treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
    SUN Bin, GUO Bomin, KANG Jie, DENG Xianzhao, WU Bo, FAN Youben
    J Otolaryngol Ophthalmol Shandong Univ. 2017, 31(6):  16-20.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.1.2017.040
    Abstract ( 705 )   PDF (6166KB) ( 280 )   Save
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    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma(ATC)is the most aggressive malignant thyroid carcinoma, with rapid metastasis and high mortality rates. In clinical settings, surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy have been applied for comprehensive treatment. Till date, there is no standardized effective treatment. Herein, we present the “standardization” of the diagnosis and treatment of ATC based on our own clinical experience.
    Relationship between thyroid cancer and hematological components of the systemic inflammatory response.
    PUBU Ciren, LIU Jifeng, BA Luo
    J Otolaryngol Ophthalmol Shandong Univ. 2017, 31(6):  21-24.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.1.2017.048
    Abstract ( 364 )   PDF (1067KB) ( 156 )   Save
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    In a variety of cancers, including thyroid cancer, hematological components of the systemic in ammatory response have been shown to have prognostic value.Most previous studies have focused on the relationship between thyroid cancer and hematological components, such as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and C-reactive protein.This paper aimed to report the advance of the association between these hematological data and thyroid cancer.
    Clinical characteristics and treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in children.
    SUN Guochen, SUN Yan, ZHANG Hong, WANG Baowei
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2017, 31(6):  25-28.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.1.2017.049
    Abstract ( 373 )   PDF (343KB) ( 203 )   Save
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    Objective To explore the clinical characteristics and treatment of thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents. Methods A retrospective analysis of 32 patients with thyroid carcinoma younger than 18 years of age who underwent surgical treatment was performed. Results The 32 patients studied included 8 boys and 24 girls. The age at the onset of disease was less than 14 years in 11 patients and more than 14 years in 21 patients. Bilateral and unilateral thyroid lesions were found in 19 and 13 patients, respectively. While 23 patients had multiple lesions, 9 had single lesions. The tumor size was greater than 1 cm in 30 patients and less than 1 cm in 2 patients. Confirmed thyroid papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were diagnosed in 27 and 5 patients, respectively. Cervical lymph node metastasis occurred in 25 patients, and the transfer rate was 78.13%. Lymph node transfer in the Ⅰ-Ⅵ neck region and upper mediastinum occurred at rates of 3.13%, 31.25%, 31.25%, 37.50%, 9.38%, 68.75%, and 25.00%, respectively. While thyroid invasion was found in 12 patients, lung and lymph node metastases were seen in 5 and 10 patients, respectively. All patients received follow-up for 1-14 years, all survived except for one patient lost. Conclusion Differentiated thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents is highly invasive with high metastatic and recurrence rates but low mortality. Total thyroidectomy and standard neck dissection, therefore, should be highly valued.
    Expression and clinical significance of Heparanase and D2-40 in pediatric thyroid carcinoma.
    PAN Yongjie, PANG Wenhui, SUN Guochen, SUN Yan, ZHANG Hong
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2017, 31(6):  29-32.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.1.2017.036
    Abstract ( 338 )   PDF (2054KB) ( 203 )   Save
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    Objective To analyze the expression and clinical significance of heparanase( Hpa)and D2-40 in pediatric thyroid carcinoma. Methods Immunohistochemical SP method was used to check the expression of Hpa and D2-40 in pediatric thyroid carcinoma and adult thyroid carcinoma. The expression of Hpa and D2-40 in thyroid carcinoma and its clinical significance were analyzed. Results Hpa and D2-40 were highly expressed in pediatric thyroid carcinoma and adult thyroid carcinoma. The expression of the two proteins in pediatric thyroid carcinoma and adult thyroid carcinoma were related to the degree of lymph node metastasis, but it has nothing to do with age,sex,tissue type and whether capsule invasion. Conclusion The Hpa and D2-40 in pediatric thyroid carcinoma and adult thyroid carcinoma were all highly expressed, and they ware closely related to the lymph node metastasis, so Hpa and D2-40 can be used as the biological characteristics index of pediatric thyroid carcinoma.
    A case of recurrent laryngeal nerve schwannoma misdiagnosed as a thyroid tumor.
    WANG Zhixiang, XUE Kai, WEI Ning, HAN Shuang, JIN Chunshun.
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2017, 31(6):  33-35.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2017.415
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    Intrathoracic vagal goiter: a report of one case and a literature review.
    ZHANG Zhuan, LIU Tao, ZHOU Changming, MA Lu
    J Otolaryngol Ophthalmol Shandong Univ. 2017, 31(6):  36-38.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2017.429
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    A novel PAX3 mutation causing type I Waardenburg syndrome.
    XU Xinbo, MA Xiaojie, YAN Tao, HAN Xiao, ZHANG Hanbing
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2017, 31(6):  39-41.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2017.443
    Abstract ( 611 )   PDF (1714KB) ( 163 )   Save
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    Objective To determine PAX3 mutations associated with type I Waardenburg syndrome. Method Using a sequencing technique, we identified mutations in the proband and each member of the family. Result Type I Waardenburg was present in 11 members and in three generations of this family. Both the proband and his mother had a novel PAX3 c.358G>T p.GLu120* mutation that might stop the translation of PAX3 mRNA. Conclusion This novel PAX3 mutation is of clinical significance in prenatal diagnosis.
    Curative effect of postural restriction on benign paroxysmal positional vertigo after manual reduction.
    LI Guifang, WANG Chunhua, ZHANG Shuzhen
    J Otolaryngol Ophthalmol Shandong Univ. 2017, 31(6):  42-45.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2017.266
    Abstract ( 354 )   PDF (898KB) ( 85 )   Save
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    Objective To examine the effect of postural restriction on patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo(BPPV)after manual reduction. Methods A total of 210 cases of BPPV including 140 with posterior semicircular canal(PSC)-BPPV and 70 with horizontal semicircular canal(HSC)-BPPV(50 HSC-BPPV and 20 apogeotropic HSC-BPPV)were randomly divided into a combined position restriction group(observation group)and a control group. Results In patients with PSC-BPPV, there was no significant short-term(7 days)or long-term(3 months)difference in curative effect between the two groups(P=0.515, P=0.967). There was a statistically significant difference during short-term evaluation(P=0.030, P=0.040)but no significant difference(P=0.972)in the long-term curative effect between the HSC-BPPV and apogeotropic HSC-BPPV groups. Conclusion Postural restriction therapy is not needed in PSC-BPPV but should be used in HSC-BPPV until symptoms remit.
    Expression of chemokine ligand 27 in secondary middle ear cholesteatoma.
    ZHANG Menglu, LI Yongtuan.
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2017, 31(6):  46-48.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2017.290
    Abstract ( 358 )   PDF (1324KB) ( 98 )   Save
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    Objective To explore the pathological expression of chemokine ligand 27(CCL27)and discuss its possible clinical significance in secondary middle ear cholesteatoma. Methods The SP immunohistochemical staining technique was applied to detect the expression of CCL27 in 30 samples of secondary middle ear cholesteatoma tissue and 30 samples of normal auricle skin. Results Of the secondary middle ear cholesteatoma tissue samples, 6.7% were positive for CCL27 expression, whereas 33.3% of the normal auricle skin samples were positive for CCL27 expression. CCL27 was expressed less commonly in the former, and there was a significant difference in the rate of expression between the two groups(P=0.021). Conclusion The lower expression of CCL27 may be correlated with the hyperproliferative nature of the secondary middle ear cholesteatoma epithelium. CCL27 may play a significant role in the development of secondary middle ear cholesteatoma.
    Endoscopic anterior prelacrimal recess surgery for treatment of inverted papillomas.
    CUI Xiao, YAN Aihui.
    J Otolaryngol Ophthalmol Shandong Univ. 2017, 31(6):  49-52.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2017.309
    Abstract ( 606 )   PDF (3921KB) ( 105 )   Save
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    Objective To explore the clinical effects and complications of the nasal endoscopic anterior lacrimal recess approach for the treatment of inverted papillomas of the maxillary sinus. Methods Twenty-one patients with inverted papillomas of the maxillary sinus were treated in our department between September 2014 and March 2016. The operation was performed under hypotension anesthesia and treated with the endoscopic anterior lacrimal recess approach. Results The lesions were resected from all 21 patients. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed that all patients had sinonasal inverted papillomas. All of the patients exhibited satisfactory healing and no severe complications. With the exception of one patient who suffered local recurrence 6 months after operation, no patients experienced relapse. We repeated the operation through the anterior lacrimal recess and no signs of recurrence were detected at 12 months. Conclusion The endoscopic anterior lacrimal recess approach for treatment of inverted papillomas of the maxillary sinus is a minimally invasive, safe, and effective method that can be used as first-line treatment.
    Effect of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome on blood glucose, serum lipid, and C-reactive protein levels.
    REN Tao, TANG Yijun, WANG Meifang, LIU Yan, QIAN Xin.
    J Otolaryngol Ophthalmol Shandong Univ. 2017, 31(6):  53-57.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2017.182
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    Objective We aimed to assess the correlation between obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome(OSAHS)and changes in blood glucose, serum lipid, and C-reactive protein(CRP)levels. Methods Based on the apnea-hypopnea index(AHI), 103 patients with OSAHS were divided into 3 groups, with mild(n=36), moderate(n=35), and severe disease(n=32). Thirty-five healthy subjects served as controls. Arterial oxygen saturation(SpO2), blood glucose, serum lipid levels, and CRP levels were compared. We analyzed the correlation between AHI and SpO2, blood glucose, serum lipid, and CRP levels. Results Compared with the control group, the lowest and average SpO2 levels were significantly lower in all groups of OSAHS(P<0.01). Insulin resistance(IR)was high in all groups; furthermore, the fasting blood glucose(FBG), fasting insulin(FINS), CRP, and serum triglyceride(TG)levels were also significantly higher in these patients(P<0.05). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C)levels were significantly higher in the moderate and severe groups(P<0.01), and increased linearly with the severity of OSAHS(P<0.01). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C)levels were significantly lower in all OSAHS groups and decreased linearly with disease severity(P<0.01). Total cholesterol(TC)levels were significantly higher in the severe group(P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between the 4 groups(P>0.05). AHI correlated positively with FINS levels and IR(P<0.01); it did not correlate with the lowest and average SpO2, FINS levels, and IR(P>0.05). AHI correlated negatively with HDL-C levels(P<0.05)and positively with TG and CRP levels(P<0.01). The 山东大学耳鼻喉眼学报31卷6期 -任涛,等.阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征对血糖、血脂及C反应蛋白的影响 \=-lowest and average SpO2 correlated positively with HDL-C levels(P<0.05)and negatively with TG and CRP levels(P<0.01). Conclusion OSAHS has a strong influence on blood glucose, serum lipid, and CRP levels. The severity of OSAHS is correlated to blood glucose, serum lipid, and CRP levels. In addition, when the severity of OSAHS is based on AHI, low SpO2 is a typical pathological feature in all groups. Besides, AHI is strongly correlated to SpO2, IR, as well as FINS, HDL-C, TG, and CRP levels. Therefore, early screening for these markers of OSAHS may be significant in the evaluation of the disease.
    Treatment of pharyngeal stenosis following uvulopalatopharyngoplasty with coblation.
    HUO Hong, LI Wuyi, WANG Jian, YANG Dahai, JIN Xiaofeng, TIAN Xu, NIU Yanyan.
    J Otolaryngol Ophthalmol Shandong Univ. 2017, 31(6):  58-61.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2017.436
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    Objective Pharyngeal stenosis as a postoperative complication following uvulopalatopharyngoplasty(UPPP)with coblation is rare and may be difficult to treat. This report explores the causes of pharyngeal stenosis and presents our experience in successfully treating it. Methods From November 2010 to August 2016, eight patients with pharyngeal stenosis(five cases of nasopharyngeal stenosis and three of combined nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal stenosis)secondary to UPPP with coblation presenting to Peking Union Medical College Hospital were studied. All patients with grade Ⅲ nasopharyngeal stenosis and different levels of difficulty in nasal breathing, mouth breathing, and blowing of the nose, as well as hyponasal speech, snoring, apnea, anosmia, and dysphagia. They underwent scar resection surgery for nasopharyngeal stenosis, horizontal-to-vertical pharyngoplasty for oropharyngeal stenosis, and local pharyngeal-flap rotation. Nasopharyngeal hollow stents were maintained in situ for >6 months postoperatively. Results Over a follow-up period of 1-4.5 years, amelioration of all symptoms was observed in seven cases, and the nasopharyngeal diameter was maintained at about 2 cm. No case of velopharyngeal insufficiency was noted. One patient required retreatment after restenosis. Conclusion Improper operation with coblation can cause severe postoperative pharyngeal stenosis. Scar resection, local flap rotation, horizontal-to-vertical pharyngoplasty, and prolonged use of nasopharyngeal hollow stents are reliable methods for correction of pharyngeal stenosis following UPPP surgery.
    Predictors of difficult airway in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome during general anesthesia.
    LI Ling, WANG Chunling, ZHANG Li, LI Yanzhong.
    J Otolaryngol Ophthalmol Shandong Univ. 2017, 31(6):  62-67.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2017.396
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    Objective This study aimed to find predictors for difficult mask ventilation and intubation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome(OSAHS), and to decrease the incidence of difficult airway during general anesthesia. Methods Based on the inclusion criteria, 128 OSAHS patients diagnosed by polysomnography were included in the study. After general anesthesia induction, the incidence of difficult mask ventilation and difficult intubation were recorded; patient characteristics were also documented. Univariate analyses were performed to identify the potential risk factors for difficult mask ventilation and difficult intubation. Factors identified as having a significant association with difficult mask ventilation and difficult intubation were then subjected to stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis, to evaluate confounding among these predictors. Results Difficult mask ventilation was present in 64.8%(83/128)of the OSAHS patients; the rate of difficult intubation was 51.6%(66/128). The univariate analyses showed that difficult mask ventilation was associated with body mass index(BMI), apnea-hypopnea index(AHI), neck circumference(NC), waist circumference(WC), neck circumference to height ratio(NC/H), waist circumference to height ratio(WC/H), Mallampati score, and Cormack and Lehane classification. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that BMI, NC, Mallampati score, and Cormack and Lehane classification were independent predictors of difficult mask ventilation. Difficult intubation was associated with BMI, the lowest oxygen saturation(LSaO2)level, AHI, WC, WC/H, interincisor distance(ICD), Mallampati score, and Cormack and Lehane classification. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that AHI and Cormack and Lehane classification were independent predictors of difficult intubation; ICD was the protective factor for difficult intubation. Conclusion OSAHS patients presented with a high risk of difficult airway. BMI, NC, Mallampati score, and Cormack and Lehane classification were independent predictors of difficult mask ventilation. AHI, ICD, and Cormack and Lehane classification were 山东大学耳鼻喉眼学报31卷6期 -李玲,等.阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征患者手术麻醉中困难气道发生的因素预测 \=-strongly linked with difficult intubation.
    Comparison of the curative effect of CO2 laser microsurgery and conventional microsurgery for vocal polyp resection.
    HAO Yan, LI Dongcai, LAN Jianping.
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2017, 31(6):  68-70.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2017.034
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    Objective To compare the curative effect and recovery between CO2 laser microsurgery and conventional microscope surgery for vocal polyp resection. Methods The case data of 214 patients with polyps of the vocal cords treated at our hospital between May 2013 and September 2016 were divided into the common CO2 laser group(50 cases), general traditional microscope group(56 cases), complex CO2 laser group(48 cases), and complex traditional microscope group(60 cases)according to the different pathological conditions of the patients and the treatment method. The difference in the outcomes of surgery performed using the two surgical methods for the treatment of the different pathological conditions was compared. Results There was no significant difference in the overall curative effect between the two surgical methods(P > 0.05). After surgery, there was no significant difference in the total effective rate for the two surgical methods between patients with common and complex vocal polyps. There was also no difference in the main voice parameters of the patients, including fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency perturbation, amplitude perturbation, noise energy, or harmonic noise ratio(P>0.05). Conclusion Surgical treatment of vocal cord polyps using either CO2 laser microsurgery or conventional microscope-supported laryngoscope surgery can yield satisfactory results. The best treatment plan must be selected, and surgery and postoperative recovery must be optimized according to each patients specific condition.
    Improvement of pharyngalgia in 8 cases of styloid process syndrome by surgical shortening of the styloid processes.
    QIU Jibing, YIN Yanze, MA Jing.
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2017, 31(6):  71-73.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.1.2017.224
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    Objective To explore the effect of surgical shortening of the elongated styloid processes on pharyngalgia in patients with styloid process syndrome. Methods Eight patients with styloid process syndrome underwent surgical shortening of the elongated styloid processes; the preoperative and postoperative clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Results The symptom of pharyngalgia in all patients resolved completely after the surgery. One patient bled 30 mL during the surgery, from an injury to the arteriole, due to an incision of the superior constrictor of the pharynx; the bleeding was stopped by ligation. One patient developed delayed hemorrhage at the tonsillar pit on day 7 after surgery; the hemorrhage was stopped by a local application of a cotton ball with hydrogen peroxide. Conclusion Surgical shortening of the elongated styloid processes can effectively treat styloid process syndrome characterized by pharyngalgia.
    Delayed corneal wound healing is related to impaired IGF-1 expression in diabetic rats.
    ZHANG Ying, CHEN Hongmei, WU Xinyi.
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2017, 31(6):  74-78.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2017.374
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    Objective To explore the expression of IGF-1 and IGF-1R in corneal wound healing in diabetic rats. Method Male Wistar rats were injected with streptozocin; serum glucose levels and body weight were monitored. Following corneal abrasion, healing rate was evaluated. Real-time PCR and immunofluorescence were used to explore the expression of IGF-1 and IGF-1R. Result Low weights and high glucose levels were observed in diabetic rats. Healing rate was significantly lower in the diabetic rats than in normal rats. mRNA and protein expression of IGF-1 and IGF-1R was significantly lower in the diabetic rat group than in the normal group. Conclusion In diabetic rats, delayed corneal epithelial wound healing might be associated with impaired IGF-1 and IGF-1R expression.
    Outcomes of sinus balloon catheter dilation in treatment of pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    LIN Xing, LIN Zongtong, SHEN Ling.
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2017, 31(6):  79-86.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2017.373
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    Objective To estimate the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of sinus balloon catheter dilation in the treatment of pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis. Methods PubMed, Embase, CNKI, Wanfang Data, CBM, and VIP databases were systematically searched for prospective studies from the date of establishment of the databases to June, 2017, on the therapeutic effects of sinus balloon catheter dilation in the treatment of pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis. Two reviewers independently conducted the literature search, study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment of the included studies. The meta-analysis was conducted using statistical package R. Results A total of 8 prospective studies were included. Feasibility study: 7 prospective studies involving 235 patients(549 sinuses)were included. The results of the meta-analysis showed that sinus balloon catheter dilation was successful in 98% of the cases(95%CI[0.95-1.00]). Effectiveness study: 5 prospective studies involving 172 patients were included. The SN-5 score was used to assess postoperative improvement in symptoms. The meta-analysis showed that the procedure improved symptoms in 89% of patients(95%CI[0.84 - 0.93]); and the SN-5 score decreased by 1.87 at follow-up, compared to baseline values(P<0.01). Safety study: Only one study reported a patient who experienced periorbital swelling without hematoma postoperatively; it resolved within one week with no specific treatment. Conclusion Sinus balloon catheter dilation is a safe, feasible, and effective treatment for pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis. Due to the low quality of the included studies, the conclusion should be verified by more strictly-designed, large-scale, and high-quality studies in the future.
    Diagnosis and treatment of upper airway cough syndrome in children.
    JING Shanglin.
    J Otolaryngol Ophthalmol Shandong Univ. 2017, 31(6):  87-91.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2017.242
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    The upper airway cough syndrome(UACS)is a chronic disease commonly observed in pediatric clinics. Its pathogenesis is not clear and involves pediatric, otorhinolaryngology, respiratory, immunology, and other disciplines. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of the recent advances in the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of UACS in children; we also put forth new ideas and methods for the diagnosis and treatment of UACS of the same.
    Common susceptibility genes of primary open-angle glaucoma.
    ZHAO Dongdong, WANG Yi, GAO Jianlu.
    J Otolaryngol Ophthalmol Shandong Univ. 2017, 31(6):  92-96.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2017.188
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    Primary open-angle glaucoma(POAG)is a neuropathy that can lead to irreversible visual field defects, and it is currently the second major disease in the world known to cause blindness. To date, significant research has demonstrated that genes and genetic variation play an important role in the glaucomatous pathogenesis; however, the mechanism is not yet entirely clear. Although more than 20 loci have been found to be linked with POAG, only three underlying genes have been identified(MYOCilin, optineurin, and WD repeat domain 36). The newly discovered caveolin 1/caveolin 2 gene and candidate gene cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily B member 1 have also become hotspots in glaucoma genetic research. In this article, we will review the location, structure, and possible mechanisms of action of the aforementioned five pathogenic genes in relation to the pathogenesis of POAG.
    Diagnosis and treatment of the double internal fistula of incomplete third branchial fistulas and literature review.
    ZHANG Yong, LI Yifei, CHENG You, JI Han.
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2017, 31(6):  98-100.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1673-3770.0.2017.064
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