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    16 June 2011 Volume 25 Issue 3
      
    Articles
    Expression and clinical significance of TERT and PCNA in the tissue and cell lines of laryngeal squamaous cell carcinoma
    CHEN Jin-hui, TAO Ze-zhang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  5-8. 
    Abstract ( 1140 )   PDF (1198KB) ( 894 )   Save
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    Objective     To investigate expression of TERT(telomerase reverse transcriptase) and PCNA(proliferating cell nuclear antigen) in the tissue and cell lines of laryngeal squamaous cell carcinoma, and to elucidate the clinical pathological significance. Methods      A continuous mutiple-spectrums scan was applied to show expression of TERT and PCNA in tissue array. TERT and PCNA mRNA expression was measured in Hep-2 cells by RT-PCR test after siRNA inhibition. Results       Expressions of TERT and PCNA were significantly different in benign and malignant head and neck cancers. Among the malignant, expression of TERT and PCNA were all higher in grade Ⅲ than grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ . Also, both expressions were moderately interrelated(r=0.577, P<0.05). TERT mRNA level was decreased by 80% after siRNA inhibition, while the PCNA mRNA level was decreased by 70%. Conclusion      TERT and PCNA are related to the development of laryngeal squamaous cell carcinoma. They are synergetic. It is possible that PCNA can exert an effect on TERT to modulate the proliferation of cancer cells.

    Diagnosis and surgical treatment of cervical  neurilemmoma (6 cases report)
    ZHU Jiang-cai, CHEN Xin-wei, WANG Fei, WANG Guo-liang, DONG Pin
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  9-11. 
    Abstract ( 1943 )   PDF (347KB) ( 1469 )   Save
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    Objective     To explore diagnosis and surgical treatment of cervical neuriemmoma. Methods       A retrospective analysis of 6 patients with cervical neuriemmoma was performed. Clinical manifestations before and after treatment, diagnostic methods and treatment options were summarized. Results      Diagnosis could be achieved based on clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations (ultrasonography, CT, MRI), and cytology of fine needle aspiration. Correct preoperative diagnosis was made in all 6 cases, which was confirmed by postoperative pathological findings. Surgical resections were successfully performed on all patients without complications. Conclusions      For patients with neuriemmoma, ultrasonography, CT examination, and especially fine needle aspiration biopsy, are helpful for diagnosis. Surgical resection is the most effective therapy and complications can be avoided by delicate operation.

    Skin malignancies in the head and neck region(16 cases report)
    HAO Kai-fei, TAO Shu-dong, HAN Bing, YAN Zhao-hui
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  12-14. 
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    Objective      To investigate effectiveness of  surgical treatment and reconstruction of tissue defects of skin cancers in the head and neck region. Methods       16 patients with skin malignancies in the head and neck region, including 12 basal cell carcinomas and 4 squamous cell carcinoma, were treated with Mohs′micrographic surgery and common surgery. According to the individual characteristics,  tissue defects were repaired with primary closure in 6 cases, local skin flap in 9 cases, and auricular composite graft in 1 case. Results      16 patients were followed up for 1 to 6 years. 1 case of basal cell carcinoma, which had recurrence in the nasal dorsum 5 months later, received radical resection and skin flap reconstruction again.No recurrence was found in the other cases. All patients survived well. Functional and aesthetic results were satisfactory. Conclusion      The key point of prognosis for skin malignancies in the head and neck region is that the should be diagnosed and treated as early as possible. Satisfactory functional and aesthetic results  can be obtained with suitable surgical treatments and reconstruction techniques for most patients.

    Preliminary study of animal models for laryngeal surgery
    XU Hong-ming, DONG Pin, SUN Zhen-feng, WANG Guo-liang, WANG Fei
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  15. 
    Abstract ( 1165 )   PDF (415KB) ( 1239 )   Save
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    Objective      To study an animal model for laryngeal surgery by measuring relevant parameters during the operation and peri-operative period in canines. Methods      10 beagles underwent laryngofissure and basic parameters of the laryngeal cavity were measured during the operation. Then, 10 beagles underwent tracheotomy and nasogastric feeding and the postoperative status was observed. Results      Canines and humans showed similar parameters of the laryngeal cavity. Canines could sustain postoperative tracheotomy and nasogastric feeding. Conclusions     It is suitable to choose canines as the experimental animal. And the schemes of  the operation and peri-operative treatment are clear.

    Clinical analysis and treatment of recurrent laryngeal cancer
    YI Hai-jin1, ZHANG Bao-quan2, WANG Chun-hong1, GUO Hong1, NI Fu-qiang1
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  18-21. 
    Abstract ( 1236 )   PDF (347KB) ( 1599 )   Save
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    Objective      To explore clinical factors and treatment of recurrent laryngeal cancer. Methods      The clinical data of 23  recurrent laryngeal cancer cases were reviewed, while the recurrence factors of 78 laryngeal cancers were analyzed by χ2-Test and Logistic Degression analysis. Result       The recurrence of laryngeal cancer was related to location, the grading of pathology and the T stage, but not method of operation. A positive incision margin was a risk factor for recurrence. Among 23 recurrent laryngeal cancer patients,there were 13 local recurrences, 7 cervical metastasis, and 3 local recurrences accompanied  with cervical metastasis. Treatments consisted of radiation therapy, partial laryngectomy, total laryngectomy and radical neck dissection. In 13 cases with local recurrence, 8 patients survived, 3 patients died, and 2 patients were lost during the follow-up. In 7 cases with only cervical metastasis,  4 patient survived, 2 patients died, and 1 patients was lost during the follow-up. As for the other 3 patients with both  local recurrence and cervical metastasis,1 patient survived, 1 patient died, and 1 patient was lost. Conclusion       Laryngeal cancer recurrence is associated with tumor location,  grading of pathology, T stage and a positive incision margin. Regular follow-up is helpful to trace laryngeal cancer recurrence. Surgery is the effective treatment for recurrent laryngeal cancer.

    Hypopharynx-esophageal carcinoma misdiagnosed as thyroid disease: a clinic analysis of 4 cases
    LIN Bin,WANG Hui-ge
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  22-24. 
    Abstract ( 1061 )   PDF (333KB) ( 1228 )   Save
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    Objective     To investigate patterns of thyroid invasion in hypopharynx-esophageal carcinoma by analyzing 4 cases which were misdiagnosed as thyroid disease. Method      The clinical data of 4 hypopharynx-esophageal carcinoma potients who were misdiagnosed as thyroid disease were analyzed and related literature was reviewed. Result      Postoperative pathological studies confirmed squamous cell carcinoma in all cases. Conclusion      Hypopharynx-esophageal carcinoma can easuy invade the thyroid gland. To reach a correct diagnosis, physicians must pay much attention to such a scenario.

    Apoptosis and expression of  bcl-2 and bax in inner ear immune response
    ZHANG Yang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  34-36. 
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    Objective       To investigate whether apoptosis is one of the mechanism in the immune  response of the inner ear and to detect expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in inner ears. Methods      Sixty healthy SD rats were divided into the experimental group(30 systematically injected with type Ⅱcollagen and freund adjuvant), the adjuvant group(15 injected with freund adjuvant) and the control group(15 injected with the same volume of saline). DPOAE was performed and scanning electron microscopy was applied to evaluate cochlear morphology.The TUNEL method was used to detect apoptotic cells in inner ear immume response. The immunohistochemical method was applied to detect expression of Bcl-2 and Bax. Results      DPOAE amplitudes decreased and the cilia of hair cells mostly disappeared with spaces between hair cells in the experimental group compared with the adjuvant group and control group(P<0.05).TUNEL-positive cells could be detected in the corti organ, stria vascularis and  spiral ganglion cells and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax increased in the experimental group. Conclusions      These findings suggest apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of the immune response of inner ears and Bcl-2 and Bax play critical roles in it.

    Auditory changes caused by chromium and antagonistic effects of zinc or selenium
    YANG Yan1, LI Ning2, YU Jiang2, ZHANG Ke2, WU Shu-rong2, GAO Xi-bao2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  37-40. 
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    Objective        To study chromium induced hearing damages and protective effects of zinc and selenium on hearing in rats. Methods      Twenty male and twenty female Wistar rats were randomly and averagely divided into the control group(A), the chromium poisoning group(B), the zinc protective group(C), and the selenium protective group(D). After 30 days of oral administration of physiological saline, 4mg/kg potassium dichromate, 2mg/kg zinc sulfate, and 2mg/kg sodium selenite, their auditory brainstem response (ABR) was detected. Results      ABR figures of chromium poisoning groups were extremely flat and theⅠand Ⅱ latencies of ABR waves were much longer and their wave peaks were much lower than those of the control group. TheⅠand Ⅱ latencies of the two ABR waves in group C were a little shorter than those of group B, and the latencies of group D were much shorter than those of group B, but both of them were still longer than those of group A. The two wave peaks of group C and group D were higher than those of group B but lower than those of group A. Conclusions      Hearing functions of rats might be partly damaged by chromium and zinc or selenium shows some protective effects. The protection of selenium is stronger than that of zinc.

    Effect of lyophilized recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor on the healing of tympanic membrane perforation
    LI Jing-xia, ZHANG Xue-cong, QU Hui, XIE Yu-lan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  41. 
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    Objective      To investigate repair of tympanic membrane perforation with a cotton sheet of lyophilized recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor (rhaFGF), and explore  the role of rhaFGF in the healing of tympanic membrane perforation. Methods      114 cases of perforated tympanic membrane (116 ear), between June 2007 to October 2010, were randomly divided into the rhaFGF group and the Chloromycetin group which used a cotton sheet soaked with rhaFGF or chloramphenicol respectively. Results of treatments and healing time were compared. Results       The cure rate of the rhaFGF group was significantly higher than that of the Chloromycetin group. Conclusion       rhaFGF can obviously promote growth of the epithelium and fiber layer of tympanic membrane. It is an ideal auxiliary drug for the treatment of the tympanic membrane perforation, which should be widely applied.

    Comparison of auditory brainstem response and auditory  steady-state response in normal guinea pigs
    YAN Hui-qin , WANG Hai-tao, ZHOU Feng, HANG Li-fen
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  43-45. 
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    Objective      To compare the difference of the threshold of normal guinea pigs between auditory brainstem response (ABR) and auditory steady state response (ASSR), and provide a theoretical basis for hearing research on guinea pigs.  Methods      12 guinea pigs (24 ears) with normal hearing sedated by pentobarbital sodium were selected for the ABR and ASSR tests. The click- ABR stimulation rate was 11.1 beats/s, and the Ⅱwave thresholds were recorded as the ABR response threshold. The carrier frequencies(CF) of ASSR were 0.5,1,2,3,4 and 6kHz, the modulation frequency (MF) was 154Hz, and the threshold of each carrier frequency was recorded.  Results       The threshold of ASSR was higher than that of ABR at 0.5-4kHz CF in normal guinea pigs(P<0.01), but no significant difference was found at 6kHz CF(P>0.05).  Conclusion      There are significant differences in most thresholds of ASSR and ABR in normal guinea pigs. However, there is no significant difference at 6kHz CF. Therefore, the differences caused by different CF of ASSR must be noted when assessing the hearing of guinea pigs.

    Local lavage with compound betamethasone injection to treat auricle pseudocyst (20 cases report)
    WANG Chun-yu
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  46-47. 
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    Objective       To investigate the efficacy of local lavage with compound betamethasone injection to treat auricle pseudocyst. Method      In 38 cases of auricle pseudocyst,  20 cases were locally injected and rinsed with compound betamethasone after the cyst fluid was drained, while the other 18 cases were administered with dexamethasone. The clinical outcomes of these two methods were compared. Result     Patients treated with compound betamethasone were all better than those treated with dexamethasone in recovery time, injection times and sequela, with the cure rate at 100.0%(20/20), which was higher than the other groups(83.3%,15/18). However,  the difference was not significant (χ2=1.6899, P>0.05). Conclusion      Local lavage with compound betamethasone is simple and effective in treating auricle pseudocyst.

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma in nasosinuses( A report of 12 cases with literature review)
    JU Hong-shuang1, LI Xin-qin2, CAI Xiao-lan3
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  48-51. 
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    Objective       To discuss the clinical features of extramedullary plasmacytoma ( EMP ) in nasorhinuses, and to evaluate clinical diagnosis and treatment results. Methods     12 cases of EMPs in nasorinuses who treated from January 2000 to November 2010 were retrospectively analyzed for clinical presentations, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Results      The 12 cases included 9 males and 3 females, aged from 35 to 61years old, average 49.6. All of them were treated by surgery and EMP was confirmed pathologically. Radiotherapy was performed in 10 cases and radiochemical therapy in 1 case. Immunohistochemical staining must be performed to exclude multiple myeloma and its results showed CD38 was positive in 12 cases, CD79a positive in 5 cases, while CD20, CD56 and CyclD1 were negative in all cases. They were followed up from 1 to 59 months, average 53±8 months and 1 lost follow-up in 1.5 and 3 years post-operation, respectively. 1 died of local recurrence and severe infection 1.5 years after surgery. 1 case progressed to multiple myeloma 25 months after surgery, was re-treated by chemotherapy and died in 4 years. Conclusions     EMP in the nasosinuses are manifested in males. Clinical diagnosis is depended on the pathological result. Surgery in combination with radiotherapy is a good choice in prognosis. Some can progress into multiple myeloma.

    Diagnosis and treatment of allergic fungal rhino-sinusitis
    SONG Dao-liang1, LI Na2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  52-54. 
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    Objective      To analyze clinical manifestations and treatment of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis(AFRS). Method      Clinical manifestation features, sinus CT scan characteristics, serum IgE detection and treatment effect of nasal endoscopy for 16 cases of AFRS were retrospectively analyzed. Results      AFRS had no peculiar clinical manifestations and CT scans showed serpiginous. All cases were cured by nasal endoscopy.  Conclusion      Diagnosis of AFRS depends on history, CT scanning and histopathology. Comprehensive treatment by endoscopic sinus surgery in combination with steroids is  effective for AFRS.

    IGF-1R and Ki-67 expressions in olfactory epithelium of patients  suffering from dysosmia caused by chronic sinusitis
    LIU Qing-hua1, LI Zhi-chun2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  55. 
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    Objective    To study the pathogenesis of dysosphresia in patients with chronic sinusitis, and to discuss expressions and significance of IGF-1R and Ki-67 in olfactory mucosa. Methods     There were 32 cases of chronic sinusitis in the experimental group, and 11 cases in the control group. IGF-1R and Ki-67 expressions were determined by immunohistochemistry.Tissue sections were observed under an optical microscope. Results      Expressions of IGF-1R and Ki-67  in the olfactory epithelium of 32 patients suffering from the dysosmia were lighter than those in the control group(P<0.05). Conclusion     IGF-1R promoting regeneration in the olfactory epithelium was notably decreased in the ofactory epithelium of chronic sinusitis patient and may lead to ofactory dysfunction.

    The plasma levels of IL-17 and its significance in  chronic rhinosinusitis
    HAN Xue-feng, ZHANG Lei, WEI Xiao, LI Xue-zhong
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  58-61. 
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    Objective      To detect expression of IL-17 in the plasma of chronic rhinosinusitis patients, and to investigate the possible role of IL-17 in the mechanism of chronic rhinosinusitis. Methods     All the enrolled patients were divided into 3 groups: the chronic rhinosimusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) group (38 cases), theCRSsNP group (32 cases), and the control group (28 cases). The plasma level of IL-17 was detected by ELISA. Results       ①  The plasma level of IL-17 was 1.6100(1.2575-1.9830) pg/mL in the control group, 8.2483(4.8868-10.1075) pg/mL in the chronic rhinosinusitis group, of which it was 8.2430(6.2778-10.3610) pg/mL in the CRSwNP group and 8.2550(4.8783-10.1650) pg/mL in the CRSsNP group. ②  A significant difference was found between the chronic rhino-sinusitis group and the control group(P<0.05). Expression of IL-17 in the CRSwNP and CRSsNP groups was significantly higher than that in the control group. However, there was no significant difference between the CRSwNP and CRSsNP groups in expression of IL-17. Conclusion     The plasma level of IL-17 in chronic rhino-sinusitis patients was significantly higher than that of normal people, suggesting that IL-17 might play an important role in the development of chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Radio-frequency ablation in combination with surgery on 47 patients  with multiple narrow nasal valve
    LIU Ji-yuan, SHE Zhi-qiang, LONG Zeng-yong, LU Ling-juan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  63-65. 
    Abstract ( 1197 )   PDF (319KB) ( 1317 )   Save
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    Objective      To anaylze the clinical effect of radio-frequency ablation in combination with traditional surgical treatment of multiple narrow nasal valve. Methods      The clinical data of 47 cases were retrospectively analyzed. Results      Followed-up for 1.5-3 years, all nasal obstruction disappeared and nasal ventilation was obviously improved, and no patients had septal perforation and nasal deformity after the operation.  Conclusions      Radio-frequency ablation in combination with traditional surgery is effective for narrow nasal valve. It is safe and reliable and worthy to be popularized.

    Adenoid hypertrophy exsection through nasal cavity under indirect laryngoscopy
    L v Huai-qing, CHEN Yan-lin, WANG Yong-qiang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  67-68. 
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    Objective       To evaluate curative effects of adenoidectomy in which nasal polypus forceps are put in through the nasal cavity under an indirect laryngoscope. Methods     80 patients suffering from adenoid hypertrophy were enrolled in this study. Adenoidectomy was operated on by putting nasal polypus forceps through the nasal cavity with direct vision under an indirect laryngoscope and bipolar electrocoagulation or mono-polar electro-coagulation was used to stop bleeding on the nasopharyngeal surface through the nasal cavity or oral cavity. Results     The operation field was clear and the operation process was short. The adenoid was completely removed without any damage to surrounding tissues and any complications. Conclusion      Adenoidectomy through the nasal cavity under an indirect laryngoscope is easy to do.

    Recombinant human epidermal growth factor gel in the treatment of  nasal septum mucosal erosion and epistaxis
    LI Fu-hong1, FAN Ping2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  69-70. 
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    Objective      To observe the efficacy of recombinant human epidermal growth factor gel in the treatment of nasal septum mucosal erosion and epistaxis. Method       Recombinant human epidermal growth factor gel was applied in nasal septum mucosal erosion. Result       The curative rate of 52 cases of nasal septum mucosal erosion was 86.5% in the treatment group and 44.2% in the control group(P<0.01). Conclusion      Recombinant human epidermal growth factor gel in the treatment of nasal septum mucosal erosion and epistaxis obtains a good therapeutic effect.

    Bio-compatiblity of a new glaucoma drainage  implant made of polysulfone
    YANG Bo, YUAN Fang-lan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  71-74. 
    Abstract ( 1609 )   PDF (760KB) ( 815 )   Save
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    Objective      To observe the biocompatibility of a new glaucoma drainage implant (GDI) made of polysulfone in rabbit eyes. Methods     Six white New Zealand rabbits were operated on. The right or left eyes  randomly served as the experimental group and the control group. In the  experimental group, the proximal end of the GDI was inserted into the anterior chamber while the distal end was placed under the scleral flap. The control  group was performed with a scleral flap. Slit-lamp follow-up and intraocular pressure measurements were recorded before the operation and 1, 2, 4 weeks after the surgery. Bilateral eyes were observed with ultrasound biomicroscopy(UBM)  at 1 week after surgery. At 1, 2, 4 weeks after surgery, two rabbits were killed and their eyes were enucleated and histologically processed, leaving the device in situ when sectioning.  Local tissue reactions after the GDI implanted into the rabbit eyes were observed. Results     In the first day after surgery, 4 eyes (50%) showed Tyndall sign in the experimental group and 2 eyes (12.5%) showed Tyndall sign in the control group. No eye had cellulose exudation. One week postoperatively, the Tyndall sign disappeared. Histological results showed no significant difference between the experimental group and the control group.  Inflammatory cell infiltration and collagenoblast increase happened in the two groups, but no foreign-body giant cells appeared. Expression was not significantly different between the experimental and control groups. Conclusions     GDI made of polysulfone has good biocompatibility. It has no acute rejection in local tissues.

    Injury of rabbit lens epithelial cell caused by ultraviolet radiation
    YUAN Zhong-fang,MU Guo-ying
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  75-77. 
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    Objective      To study the effect of ultraviolet light (290-365nm) on the living rabbit lens. Methods      After rabbits′ eyes were radiated with ultraviolet light(290-365nm), the morphological changes and ultra-structures of epithelial cells were observed by an optical microscope and an transmission electron microscopy (TEM) respectively. Result      The morphology and ultra-structure of the epithelial cells were obviously damaged by ultraviolet light(290-365nm). Conclusion      Ultraviolet light(290-365nm) is related to cortical cataract or sub-capsular cataract.

    Conjunctival flap surgery in the treatment of 27  refractory corneal ulcer cases
    LIU Zhi-qian
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  78-79. 
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    Objective      To evaluate the therapeutic outcome of conjunctival flap surgery on refractory corneal ulcer. Methods      A retrospective analysis was done on the 27cases (27eyes) of intractable infectious corneal ulcer who underwent conjunctival flap surgery combined with medication between January 2004 and December 2009. There were 16 fungal and 11 viral corneal ulcers all characterized by failed treatment and persistent medical course. Results      26 eyes were cured after one surgery and the other one eye received repeated processure combined with tarsorrhaphy. The ulcer in 27 patients healed and the eyeballs were preserved. Conclusion      Conjunctival flap surgery is effective for refractory infectious corneal ulcer incurable to medication. This surgery can contain infection, promote cicatrization, prevent the corneal perforation, preserve the eyeball and make further treatment possible.

    Analysis of 39 cases of microlaryngoscopic surgery for  vocal cord leukoplakia
    WU Guang-can, GU Neng-rong
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  80-81. 
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    Objective      To explore the effectiveness of microlaryngoscopic surgery for vocal cord leukoplakia. Methods      Using endotracheal intubation combined with general anesthesia, the laryngoscope intubation with light source along the anesthesia catheter was slouly introdnced into the oral. Go through pharynx and larynx finally. The catheter was fikod after the glottis zone was totally exposed, the microscope zoom was adjusted to suitable times and the ared was carefully observed under the microscope to eliminate lesions. Results      All patients were followed-up from 1 to 10 years. The cure rate was 92.3%. Conclusion      Microlaryngoscopic surgery for vocal cord leukoplakia has a good therapeutic effect.

    Applications of self-made surface molds in the adjuvant therapy of external traction for zygomatic arch fractures
    ZHAI Xing-you1, WEN Kun2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  82-83. 
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    Objective     To observe the clinical efficacy of self-made surface molds in the traction and fixation of zygomatic arch fractures and its capability to prevent complications. Methods      26 hospitalized patients who voluntarily accepted the self-made surface molds for the external traction and fixation were recruited. Then,  postoperative complications, such as fracture dislocation and local infection, and the fracture healing time  were observed. Results       The fixations of the 26 patients were  smoothly removed4 weeks later. X-rays showed satisfactory reposition, blurred fracture lines, and good mouth opening capacity without postoperative infection.  Conclusion      The self-made surface molds as a postoperative adjuvant treatment of external traction for zygomatic arch fractures show good clinical efficacy and can prevent complications.

    Clinical analysis of Tracheobronchial foreign bodies with subcutaneous  emphysema, mediastinal emphysema or pneumothorax
    ZHAO Fei, ZHANG Ya-mei
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  84. 
    Abstract ( 1118 )   PDF (364KB) ( 1468 )   Save
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    Objective      To discuss the clinical features,treatments and prevention of tracheobronchial foreign bodies with subcutaneous emphysema,mediastinal emphysema or pneumothorax in children. Methods       Fifty tracheobronchial patients with subcutaneous emphysema,mediastinal emphysema or pneumothorax were included from January,1984 to December,2008. Age, risk factors, clinical features of operation-related  complications and the treatments were discussed. Results     Forty-eight patients were cured after a 5-7 day treatment. One patient complicated with atelectasis and pleural adhesion and one patient died. Conclusion     The rupture of the alveolar due to pulmonary hypertension is the main factor causing mediastinal emphysema and pneumothorax. Timely and accurate diagnosis is the prerequisites to reduce the mortality rate of tracheobronchial foreign body with complications. Prevention of operationrelated complications is the key to reduce the mortality rate.

    Clinical study of tracheobronchial foreign bodies in Children
    SUN Yu-cai, LI Xiao-yu
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  87. 
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    Objective        To discuss clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment of  tracheobronchial foreign bodies in children. Methods        A retrospective study of 150 cases of tracheobronchial foreign bodies in children was performed.The age of the children, history of foreign body ingestion, kind and location of foreign bodies, diagnosis and treatment were analyzed.Results        Two patients died, and bronchoscopic examination and foreign body removal were successfully conducted in the other 148 cases under general anaesthesia.No complications happened during and after operation, and all the 148 cases left hospital after they were cured.Conclusion    Tracheobronchial foreign bodies in children should be diagnosed and removed as soon as possible in order to reduce mortality.

    Application of bipolar coagulation forceps in tonsillectomy under general anaesthesia 
    SHEN Zhi-hao1, LUO Hua-jie2, JIN Xiao-jie2, CHEN Li1, YANG Zhi-gang1, ZHANG Yi2, LIU Jun2, ZHOU Qin-yi2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY). 2011, 25(3):  89-92. 
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    Objective      To explore the effect of bipolar coagulation forceps in tonsillectomy under general anaesthesia.Methods       65 patients were randomly divided into three groups:the tonsillectomy with bipolar coagulation forceps surgery (TEBCFS)group, the tonsillectomy with monopolar electrosurgery (TE-MES)group and the traditional blunt dissection tonsillectomy(TE-TBDT)group. The surgery duration and intraoperative blood loss were determined and compared. The postoperative pain scale,time of returning to a normal diet, and postoperative complications were also evaluated. Results       Surgical time was significantly shorter, and intra-operative blood loss and postoperative complication occurrence were statistically less in the TE-BCFS group, especially in patients with obvious adhesions between tonsils and the surrounding tissues, and patients with embedded tonsil. Conclusion       Under general anaesthesia, TE-BCFS offers a better effect than TEMES and TE-TBDT do, on those patients with obvious adhesions between tonsils and the surrounding tissues, and patients with embedded tonsil.